Internalized M. Mdm2 antagonist genitalium were prevalent and localized to membrane-bound phagolysosomes. Similar morphological changes were observed 2 h PI (data not shown). By 6 h PI, the macrophages appeared to have many phagocytic vesicles but no intracellular organisms could be located (Figure 4C). Viability of M. genitalium following macrophage exposure was evaluated by seeding infected MDM (6 h PI) into Friis FB medium at 37°C.
These cultures were observed for M. genitalium outgrowth by a pH-mediated color change and microcolony formation. No growth was detected over a 14d period from BAY 63-2521 cost any of these cultures collectively indicating that M. genitalium was susceptible to rapid phagocytosis and killing. Figure 4 M. genitalium was phagocytosed rapidly by human monocyte-derived macrophages resulting in a loss of bacterial viability. Primary human MDM were inoculated with log-phase M. genitalium G37 or M2300 (MOI 100) and collected just after inoculation or 30 min or 6 h PI and processed for TEM. Viable extracellular M. genitalium with dense intracellular ribosomes and an intact outer membrane were observed at the time of inoculation (A). Thirty minutes following inoculation, phagocytosis of M. genitalium was observed with localization to phagolysosomes (arrow) and morphological changes of the bacterium (B). By 6 h PI, macrophages contained many phagocytic click here vacuoles
(arrows) and no intracellular mycoplasmas could be located (C). Micrographs depict M. genitalium strain G37 but similar findings were observed for strain M2300. N denotes nucleus.
M. genitalium elicited pro-inflammatory cytokines from human monocyte-derived macrophages Because M. genitalium was Acesulfame Potassium phagocytosed rapidly by human MDM with no evidence of bacterial viability by 6 h PI, we sought to determine whether M. genitalium exposure to human MDM would elicit acute-phase cytokine responses. Viable M. genitalium G37 and M2300 inoculated at MOI 10 or MOI 1 elicited significant cytokine elaboration from macrophage cultures measured from supernatants collected 6 h PI (G37 [MOI 10] results presented in Table 2). No significant differences were observed between G37 and M2300 (data not shown). The profile of induced cytokine responses from human macrophages was composed predominately of early pro-inflammatory markers including significant secretion of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES (p < 0.05; Table 2). These findings were consistent with results from 2 additional blood donors (data not shown). Following UV inactivation, M. genitalium elicited a similar profile and magnitude of cytokine secretion (Table 2) indicating that the immunostimulatory capacity was not dependent upon bacterial viability. Immune markers that were not induced by M.