In a long-term recognition memory test performed 24 h after training, the same rats were allowed to explore the field for 5 min in the presence of the familiar object A and a novel object C (a sphere with a square-shaped base). Recognition memory was evaluated as done for the short-term memory test. Exploration was defined as sniffing (exploring the object 3–5 cm away from it) or touching the object
with the nose and/or forepaws. The task was conducted according to previous reports (Einat et al., 2001 and Porsolt, 1979), and it was used as a model for depressive behavior. Briefly, the task involves two exposures to a cylindrical water tank, in which rats cannot touch the bottom or from which they cannot escape. The tank is made of transparent plexiglass, 80 cm tall, 30 cm in diameter, and filled with water (22–23 °C)
to a depth of 40 cm. Water check details in the tank was changed for each rat. For the first exposure, the rats were placed in the water for 15 min (pre-test session). After 24 h, the rats were placed in the water again for a 5-min session (test session). The periods of immobility were analyzed. The rats were judged to be immobile whenever they stopped swimming and remained floating in the water, with their head just above water level. It explains how to measure depression. Data from the Afatinib concentration open-field task were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc and expressed as mean ± SEM. Data from the inhibitory avoidance task and object
recognition task were reported as median and interquartile ranges, and comparisons among groups were performed using Mann–Whitney U test. The individual groups were analyzed by using Wilcoxon tests. The data for the forced swimming tests were reported as means ± SEM and were analyzed by using the Student’s t test. Data from the biochemical analyses were reported as ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test and expressed as mean ± SD. In all comparisons, p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Sepsis caused an increase in TBARS (Fig. 1A) and protein carbonyl (Fig. 1B) levels in the investigated brain regions, observed 12 h (Fig. 1A) and 24 h (Fig. 1B) after surgery procedure Montelukast Sodium (CLP or sham), exception of the cerebellum: protein carbonyl in 12 and 24 h and TBARS in 24 h, and in prefrontal: protein carbonyl for 12 h. Treatment with GUA avoided the increase, exception of the “cortex”: TBARS (24 h). In the open-field task, there was no difference in the number of crossing and rearing among groups in the training session (Fig. 2), indicating that there was no effect of CLP and GUA on motor and exploratory activities. In the test session, the sham group presented a decrease in the number of crossings and rearings as a memory index, and this decrease was avoided by CLP, suggesting memory impairment. GUA treatment suppressed this CLP effect on memory.