Buffalo M-proinsulin, containing the initiation methionine, was p

Buffalo M-proinsulin, containing the initiation methionine, was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to give M(r) of 8812. Following the replacement of 99% of the exchangeable hydrogen atoms with deuterons a preparation containing 131 D atoms was obtained. Buffer exchange of the latter into a protio medium led to, the immediate release of 109 (+/- 1) D atoms

into the medium and the retention of 22 (+/- 1) D atoms in the protein. The slow exchange of these D atoms was studied at 0 degrees C/pH 2.8. Insulin derived from buffalo proinsulin as well as bovine when deuteriated and buffer exchanged, similarly, gave the retention of 25 (+/- 1) D atoms. The data show that the secondary structure of the insulin core present within buffalo/bovine proinsulin contains 5 (+/- 1) fewer slow exchanging hydrogen atoms than are present in the final hormone. This effect is attributed, predominantly, to the long range influence of the SN-38 manufacturer C-peptide, composed of 26 residues, on the insulin core of buffalo proinsulin. In contrast, in the case of human proinsulin, comprising 31 amino acids in the C-peptide, the secondary structure of the insulin core within human proinsulin

is closer to that of insulin itself. (C) 2010 GS-7977 price Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“QuikChange is a popular method for site-directed mutagenesis in structural and functional studies of proteins and nucleic acids. However, the standard protocol is often inefficient in producing the desired mutations. Here we present a novel CHIR-99021 cell line strategy for primer design,

central overlapping primers (COP), which employs a pair of bipartite primers of different lengths, with the short primer complementary to the middle region of the long primer. The COP method is efficient and robust in generating approximately 90% mutation rate without supercompetent Escherichia coli cells or laborious screening for positive clones. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUNDThe atypical cytologic diagnostic category is ambiguous and presents a management problem for pathologists and clinicians. This meta-analysis reviewed the frequency and cancer risk associated with atypical diagnoses in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) specimens of solid pancreatic lesions.\n\nMETHODSPubMed and Scopus were searched using the keywords EUS-FNA and pancreas. Articles were screened focusing on studies of solid lesions. Studies with information regarding the frequency and outcomes of atypical diagnoses were included; the suspicious category was excluded from the analysis. The frequency of atypical diagnoses and the associated risk were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The authors assessed whether the following factors explained the heterogeneity of the studies: rapid on-site interpretation; type of reference standard; the study type, size, and site; and the frequency of inadequate, atypical, and positive categories.

Between 1988-1994 and 2005-2006 BMI increased by an average of 1

Between 1988-1994 and 2005-2006 BMI increased by an average of 1.8 kg/m(2) and WC by 4.7 cm (adjusted for sex, age, race-ethnicity, and education). The increase in WC was more than could be attributed simply to increases in BMI. This independent increase in WC (of on average, 0.9 cm) was consistent across the different buy Citarinostat BMI categories, sexes, education levels, and race-ethnicity groups. It occurred in younger but not older age groups. Overall in each BMI category, the prevalence of low-risk WC decreased and the prevalence of increased-risk or substantially

increased-risk WC increased. These results suggest that the adverse health consequences associated with obesity may be increasingly underestimated by trends buy YH25448 in BMI alone. Since WC is closely linked

to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, it is important to know the prevailing trends in both of these parameters.”
“Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a devastating developmental and progressive peripheral neuropathy caused by a mutation in the gene inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). To identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause FD, we generated mice in which Ikbkap expression is ablated in the peripheral nervous system and identify the steps in peripheral nervous system development that are Ikbkap-dependent. We show that Ikbkap is not required for trunk neural crest migration or pathfinding, nor for the formation of dorsal root or sympathetic ganglia, or the adrenal medulla. Instead, Ikbkap is essential for the second wave of neurogenesis during which the majority of tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA(+)) nociceptors

and thermoreceptors arise. In its absence, approximately half the normal complement of TrkA(+) neurons Small molecule library cost are lost, which we show is partly due to p53-mediated premature differentiation and death of mitotically-active progenitors that express the paired-box gene Pax3 and give rise to the majority of TrkA(+) neurons. By the end of sensory development, the number of TrkC neurons is significantly increased, which may result from an increase in Runx3(+) cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TrkA(+) (but not TrkC(+)) sensory and sympathetic neurons undergo exacerbated Caspase 3-mediated programmed cell death in the absence of Ikbkap and that this death is not due to a reduction in nerve growth factor synthesis. In summary, these data suggest that FD does not result from a failure in trunk neural crest migration, but rather from a critical function for Ikbkap in TrkA progenitors and TrkA(+) neurons.”
“Perchlorate is a widespread contaminant in aquatic environments. Despite this, the aquatic environmental fate of perchlorate released from fireworks displays is not well known.

Blastocysts either diploid for chromosome copy number (20) or dia

Blastocysts either diploid for chromosome copy number (20) or diagnosed as single- (40) or double aneuploid (10) were included after preparing the embryo into one ICM and three equal-sized TE sections. Accuracy of the aCGH was measured based on FISH reanalysis. Chromosomal segregations resulting in diploid/aneuploid mosaicism were classified as low-, medium- and high- grade and categorized with respect to their distribution (1TE, 2TE, 3TE, ICM or ALL embryo). Linear regression model was used to learn more test the relationship between the distributions and the proportion of aneuploid cells across the four embryo sections. Fishers exact test was used

to test for random allocation of aneuploid cells Lonafarnib nmr between TE and ICM.\n\nAll ICM biopsy procedures displayed ICM cells in the recovered fraction with a mean number of ICM cells of 26.2 and a mean TE cell contamination rate of 2. By FISH reanalysis of previously aCGH-screened blastocysts, a total of 66 aneuploidies were scored, 52 (78.8) observed in all cells and 14 (21.2) mosaic. Overall, mosaic chromosomal errors were observed only in 11 out of 70 blastocysts (15.7) but only 2 cases were classified as mosaic diploid/aneuploid (2.9). Sensitivity and specificity of aCGH on TE clinical biopsies were 98.0 and 100 per embryo and 95.2 and 99.8 per chromosome, respectively. Linear regression analysis

performed on the 11 mosaic diploid/aneuploid SU5402 cell line chromosomal segregations showed a significant positive correlation between the distribution and the proportion of aneuploid cells

across the four-blastocyst sections (P 0.01). In addition, regression analysis revealed that both the grade and the distribution of mosaic abnormal cells were significantly correlated with the likelihood of being diagnosed by aCGH performed on clinical TE biopsies (P 0.019 and P 0.01, respectively). Fishers exact test for the 66 aneuploidies recorded showed no preferential allocation of abnormal cells between ICM and TE (P 0.33).\n\nThe study is limited to non-transferable embryos, reanalyzed for only nine chromosomes and excludes segmental imbalance and uniparental disomy. The prevalence of aneuploidy in the study group is likely to be higher than in the general population of clinical PGD embryos.\n\nThis study showed high accuracy of diagnosis achievable during blastocyst stage PGS cycles coupled with 24-chromosomes molecular karyotyping analysis. The new ICM isolation strategy developed may open new possibilities for basic research in embryology and for clinical grade derivation of human embryonic stem cells.\n\nNo specific funding was sought or obtained for this study.”
“Germinal center development, critical for long-term humoral immunity, requires the trafficking of T and B lymphocytes to defined tissues and locations after antigenic challenge.

It has recently been shown that the 3D spatial organization of ch

It has recently been shown that the 3D spatial organization of chromosomes in the nucleus also plays a role in genome function. Indeed, the eukaryotic interphase nucleus contains sub-domains that are characterized by their enrichment in specific factors such as RNA Polymerase II, splicing machineries or heterochromatin proteins which render portions of the genome

differentially permissive to gene expression. The positioning of individual genes relative to these sub-domains is thought to participate in the control of gene expression as an epigenetic mechanism acting in the nuclear space. Here, we review what is known about the sub-nuclear organization of mammary epithelial BI 2536 molecular weight cells in connection with gene expression and epigenetics. Throughout differentiation, global changes in nuclear architecture occur, notably with respect to heterochromatin distribution. The positions of mammary-specific genes relative to nuclear sub-compartments varies in response to hormonal stimulation. The contribution of tissue architecture to cell differentiation

in the mammary gland is also seen at the level of nuclear organization, which is sensitive to microenvironmental stimuli such as extracellular matrix signaling. In addition, alterations in nuclear organization are concomitant with immortalization and carcinogenesis. Thus, the fate of cells appears to be controlled by complex pathways connecting external signal integration, Proteasomal inhibitors gene Compound C expression, epigenetic modifications and chromatin organization in the nucleus.”
“The immune system can both promote and suppress cancer. Chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are considered to be tumour promoting. In contrast, the exact nature of protective antitumour immunity remains obscure. Here, we quantify locally secreted cytokines during primary immune

responses against myeloma and B-cell lymphoma in mice. Strikingly, successful cancer immunosurveillance mediated by tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells is consistently associated with elevated local levels of both proinflammatory (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6) and T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2 and IL-12). Cancer eradication is achieved by a collaboration between tumour-specific Th1 cells and tumour-infiltrating, antigen-presenting macrophages. Th1 cells induce secretion of IL-1 beta and IL-6 by macrophages. Th1-derived IFN-gamma is shown to render macrophages directly cytotoxic to cancer cells, and to induce macrophages to secrete the angiostatic chemokines CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10. Thus, inflammation, when driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells, may prevent rather than promote cancer.”
“Evolutionary genetic arguments suggest that pregnancy is not a fully cooperative engagement between the mother and embryo. Trivers’s concept of parent-offspring conflict indicates that the mother and embryo will disagree over the level of maternal investment in the pregnancy.

It has shown modest efficacy and acceptable tolerability in a num

It has shown modest efficacy and acceptable tolerability in a number of trials of low to moderate quality.

Early this year, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) conducted a review and restricted the use of diacerein-containing medicines. This was because of major concerns about GSK1120212 the frequency and severity of diarrhoea and liver disorders in OA patients. In addition, the EMA’s Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) questioned the limited clinical benefits of diacerein, which, in their view, did not outweigh its risks. The aim of this review is to provide a benefit-risk assessment of diacerein in the treatment of OA, based on asystematic evaluation of the published efficacy and safety data. Overall, there is evidence that diacerein is modestly effective for symptoms and possibly for radiographic changes, but this needs to be balanced against higher rates of gastrointestinal toxicity.”
“Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Typical RTT primarily affects girls QNZ chemical structure and is characterized by a brief period of apparently normal development followed by the loss of purposeful hand skills and

language, the onset of anxiety, hand stereotypies, autistic features, seizures and autonomic dysfunction. Mecp2 mouse models have extensively been studied to demonstrate the functional link between MeCP2 dysfunction and RTT pathogenesis. However, the majority of studies have focused primarily on the molecular and behavioral consequences of the complete absence of MeCP2 in male mice. Studies of female Mecp2(/) mice have been limited because of potential phenotypic variability due to X chromosome inactivation effects. To determine whether reproducible and reliable phenotypes can be detected Mecp2(/) mice, we analyzed Mecp2(/)

mice of two different F1 hybrid isogenic backgrounds and at young and old ages using several neurobehavioral and physiological assays. Here, we report a multitude of phenotypes in female Mecp2(/) mice, some presenting as early as 5 weeks of life. We demonstrate that Mecp2(/) mice recapitulate several aspects of typical RTT and show that mosaic expression of MeCP2 does not preclude the use of female mice in behavioral and molecular studies. Importantly, selleck compound we uncover several behavioral abnormalities that are present in two genetic backgrounds and report on phenotypes that are unique to one background. These findings provide a framework for pre-clinical studies aimed at improving the constellation of phenotypes in a mouse model of RTT.”
“The cooperation of two classes of mutations in hematopoietic cells is hypothesized in a multistep pathogenesis model of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Class I mutations confer a proliferative and/or survival advantage, whereas Class II mutations block hematopoietic differentiation and impair apoptosis in AML cells.

To date however, there are few detailed investigations on cases o

To date however, there are few detailed investigations on cases of early acquired dyslexia.

The purpose of this study was to examine such a case (participant URMC-099 supplier referred to as SP). The goals of this investigation were to compare SP’s reading impairments to the major subtypes of dyslexia, establish SP’s specific reading deficits, and consider the neuropsychological variables that may impact on SP’s reading disability.”
“The rural population of Himalayas is strongly dependent on the forest wood and pastures to fulfill their fuel, shelter and livestock fodder demands. Due to absence of any effective conservation management policy for forests, the over exploitation of forest ecosystem is threatening its existence. Upper and lower elevation villages of District Bagh were surveyed to investigate the average wood consumption, preferred fuelwood trees and average land holding per family. Wood consumption in the higher and lower altitude villages was found to be 3.76 and 2.19 kg/capita/day respectively with an average of 2.97kg/capita/day. The present consumption level of the resources far exceeds the carrying capacity and natural regeneration rates of the local forest resources. Comprehensive conservation policy with practical implementations is utmost essential in order to conserve the rapidly depleting forest resources of the area.”
“More options than ever before are currently available

for medical therapy in patients who present with advanced thyroid cancer or develop surgically unresectable recurrences or symptomatic or progressive disease. The newer medical therapies have addressed the need to find effective Alvocidib molecular weight therapies beyond the conventional treatment with radioactive

iodine, thyroid learn more stimulating hormone suppression, and palliative cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Although tumor responses to these medical therapies vary by type of thyroid cancer and type of therapy selected, they remain encouraging and provide therapeutic options for selected patients while new drugs are in development.”
“Background Recently, higher proliferative activity and collagen production in the peripheral parts of keloids have been reported. Therefore, we hypothesized that insufficient removal of active proliferating and collagen-producing fibroblasts at the scar margin might cause a high recurrence rate of hypertrophic scars and keloids. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the influence of surgical margins on the recurrence of hypertrophic scars and compared the recurrence rates between intramarginal excision and extramarginal excision. Methods A retrospective review was performed of patients with car tire injury-induced hypertrophic scars treated by surgical excision from 2004 to 2010. To evaluate the influence of surgical margins on the recurrence of hypertrophic scars, we divided these patients into two groups, the intramarginal excision group and the extramarginal excision group, and compared the recurrence rate.

Interestingly, Ran is involved in the process of pVHL nuclear-cyt

Interestingly, Ran is involved in the process of pVHL nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking following microtubule network alteration in hypoxic CMs.”
“Prior studies have underlined the need for increased screening and awareness of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), especially

in certain high-risk populations. However, few studies have examined the patterns of evaluation and management of CHB between primary care physicians (PCP) and specialists according to commonly-used professional guidelines. Our goal was to examine whether necessary laboratory parameters used to determine disease status and eligibility for antiviral therapy selleck were performed by PCPs and specialists.\n\nWe conducted a retrospective study of 253 ATM Kinase Inhibitor inhibitor treatment-na < ve CHB patients who were evaluated by PCP only (n = 63) or by specialists (n = 190) for CHB at a community multispecialty medical center between March 2007

and June 2009. Criteria for CHB management and treatment eligibility were based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 2007 guideline and the US Panel 2006 algorithm. Required parameters for optimal evaluation for CHB included hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Preferred antiviral agents for CHB included pegylated interferon, adefovir, and entecavir.\n\nThe majority of patients were Asians (90 %) and male (54 %) with a mean age of 43 +/- A 11.6 years. Compared to PCPs, specialists were more likely to order laboratory testing for ALT (94 vs. 86 %, P = 0.05), HBeAg (67

vs. 41 %, P < 0.0001) and HBV DNA (83 vs. 52 %, P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients having all three laboratory parameters was significantly higher among those evaluated by specialists compared to PCP (62 vs. 33 %, P < 0.0001). A total of 55 patients were initiated on antiviral treatment (n = 47 by specialists and n = 6 by PCPs). Lamivudine was prescribed more often by PCPs than specialists (33 vs. 2 %, P = 0.05). Preferred agents were used 96 % of the time by specialists compared to 67 % of those treated by PCPs (P = 0.05).\n\nPatients evaluated by specialists for CHB are more likely to undergo more complete laboratory evaluation and, if eligible, are also more likely to be Nepicastat solubility dmso treated with preferred longer-term agents for CHB compared to those evaluated by PCPs only. A collaborative model of care involving both PCP and specialists may further optimize management of patients with CHB.”
“Background The relationship between the anatomical location of right ventricular pacing site and paced QRS duration is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between right ventricular pacing site and paced QRS duration using cardiac angiography. Methods Fifty patients were implanted with pacemakers.

All rights reserved “
“P>Aim This paper is a report o

All rights reserved.”
“P>Aim.\n\nThis paper is a report of a study conducted to describe primary healthcare personnel’s knowledge of multidrug-resistant and preventive hygiene measures.\n\nBackground.\n\nThe group of patients at risk for multi-drug resistant bacteria is largely cared for in primary care. Knowledge of multidrug-resistant

and hygiene preventive measures among primary healthcare personnel is therefore essential.\n\nMethod.\n\nA descriptive and comparative questionnaire survey among primary healthcare personnel was performed in 2008. In total, five urban and rural primary healthcare centres situated in one county in central Sweden were included. Convenient sampling was used and 10 physicians, 38 district nurses and 10 nursing assistants participated. Knowledge/medical facts concerning multidrug-resistant and hygiene preventive measures were investigated and data were analysed using a quantitative approach.\n\nResults.\n\nKnowledge/medical selleck learn more facts concerning several aspects of multidrug-resistant bacteria, particularly Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase producing bacteria, were deficient as was knowledge of different aspects of hygiene preventive measures. Physicians showed significantly better results than district nurses and nursing assistants did. Awareness of proper hand-washing as an effective preventive method and

use of aprons in nursing care was high among all participants. Staff who knew they had cared for these patients had significantly better results than the others did.\n\nConclusion.\n\nOur findings suggest that evidence-based education of multidrug-resistant and hygiene preventive measures, in primary health with subsequent follow-ups should become a prioritized Pinometostat clinician and management concern. Research is needed that focus implementation of evidence-based educations, staff attitudes and responsibilities related to the work with patients at risk of multidrug-resistant

“ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) of different morphologies are synthesized with the amino acids L-alanine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine as capping agents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the formation of a crystalline wurtzite phase of ZnO-NSs. The surface modification of ZnO-NSs due to the capping agents is confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the concentration of surface defects correlates positively with the number of polar facets in ZnO-NSs. The antimicrobial activity of the ZnO-NSs has been tested against Escherichia coil and the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus subtilis. Culture-based methods in rich medium show up to 90% growth inhibition, depending on the ZnO-NSs. Flow cytometry analyses indicate that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ZnO-NSs contribute mostly to the antibacterial activity.

(C) 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine Published by E

(C) 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of systemic diseases receiving increasing attention recently, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a major causative agent of periodontitis.\n\nMethods: The detection frequencies of periodontal bacteria in oral samples collected from 150 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (102 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 48 with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients) LY411575 cell line and 60 non-NAFLD control subjects were

determined. Detection of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria were detected by PCR assay. In addition, effect of P. gingivalis-infection on mouse NAFLD model was investigated. To clarify the exact contribution of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, non-surgical periodontal treatments were also undertaken for 3 months in 10 NAFLD patients with periodontitis.\n\nResults: The detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that in the non-NAFLD control subjects (46.7% vs. 21.7%, odds ratio: 3.16). In MAPK Inhibitor Library order addition, the detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NASH patients was markedly higher than that in the non-NAFLD subjects (52.0%, odds ratio: 3.91). Most of the P. gingivalis fimbria detected in the NAFLD patients was of invasive genotypes, especially type II (50.0%). Infection of type II P. gingivalis on NAFLD model of mice accelerated the NAFLD progression. The non-surgical periodontal treatments on NAFLD patients carried out for 3 months ameliorated AZD6244 molecular weight the liver function parameters, such as the serum

levels of AST and ALT.\n\nConclusions: Infection with high-virulence P. gingivalis might be an additional risk factor for the development/progression of NAFLD/NASH.”
“Drug combination therapies for central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) are gaining momentum over monotherapy. Over the past decade, both in vitro and in vivo studies established that statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) and rolipram (phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor; blocks the degradation of intracellular cyclic AMP) can prevent the progression of MS in affected individuals via different mechanisms of action. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of lovastatin (LOV) and rolipram (RLP) in combination therapy to promote neurorepair in an inflammatory CNS demyelination model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Methods: The antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals, alone

\n\nMethods: The antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals, alone and in combination with antibiotics, was evaluated using the checkerboard assay and time-kill curve methods.\n\nResults: There was synergism between gentamicin and caffeic acid, and sulfadiazine and the 3 phytochemicals under investigation (protocatechuic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid). The MIC of sulfadiazine

was 256 mu g/mL, and of gentamicin was 2 mu g/mL. When gentamicin see more was combined with one-quarter the MIC of caffeic acid, the MIC of gentamicin was reduced 4-fold. When sulfadiazine was tested with one-quarter the MIC of protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and caffeic acid, the MIC was reduced 4-fold in combination with each of the drugs.\n\nConclusions: These results indicate the potential efficacy of phytochemicals in combination with antibiotics for enhancing total biological activity.”
“Visual signalling can be affected by both the intensity and spectral distribution

of environmental light. In shallow LCL161 research buy aquatic habitats, the spectral range available for visually mediated behaviour, such as foraging, can reach from ultraviolet (UV) to long wavelengths in the human visible range. However, the relative importance of different wavebands in foraging behaviour is generally unknown. Here, we test how the spectral composition of ambient light influences the behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when foraging for live cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although paying particular attention to the UV waveband, we measured the foraging preferences of sticklebacks for prey presented under four different spectral conditions. These conditions selectively removed UV (UV), short-wave (SW), mid-wave (MW) or long-wave (LW) light from the entire spectrum. The absence

of UV and long wavelengths strongly reduced prey attractiveness for G. aculeatus compared with conditions without short-wave and mid-wave light. To control for potential light habitat click here preferences in the main experiment, we conducted a further choice experiment without prey stimuli. Fish in these trials did not discriminate significantly between the different spectral conditions. When comparing both experiments, it was observed that, although filter preferences for MW and LW conditions were virtually consistent, they differed at shorter wavelengths, with a reduced preference for UV conditions and, at the same time, an increased preference for SW conditions in the presence of prey. Thus, prey choice seems to be strongly affected by visual information at the short-wave end of the spectrum. The foraging preferences were also mirrored by the chromatic contrast values between prey and the experimental background, as calculated for each lighting condition using a series of physiological models on stickleback perception. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, 105, 359368.