Here, we find that the low fusogenicity of ENTV envelope protein

Here, we find that the low fusogenicity of ENTV envelope protein (Env) is not because of receptor binding, but lies in its intrinsic insensitivity to receptor-mediated triggering for fusion at low pH. Distinct from JSRV, shedding of ENTV surface (SU) subunit into culture medium was not enhanced by a soluble form of receptor, Hyal2 (sHyal2), and sHyal2 was unable to effectively inactivate the ENTV pseudovirions. Remarkably, replacing either

of the two amino acid residues, N191 or S195, located in the ENTV SU with the corresponding JSRV residues, H191 or G195, markedly increased the Env-mediated membrane fusion activity and infection. Reciprocal amino acid substitutions also partly switched the sensitivities of ENTV and JSRV pseudovirions selleck compound to sHya12-mediated SU shedding and inactivation. While N191 is responsible for an extra N-linked glycosylation of ENTV SU relative to that of JSRV, S195 possibly forms Alvocidib inhibitor a hydrogen bond with a surrounding

amino acid residue. Molecular modeling of the pre-fusion structure of JSRV Env predicts that the segment of SU that contains H191 to G195 contacts the fusion peptide and suggests that the H191N and G195S changes seen in ENTV may stabilize its pre-fusion structure against receptor priming and therefore modulate fusion activation by Hya12. In summary, our study reveals critical determinants in the SU subunits of JSRV and ENTV Env proteins that likely regulate their local structures and thereby differential receptor-mediated fusion activation at low pH, and these findings explain, at least in part, their distinct viral infectivity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This communication reports a unique example of water-soluble and fluorescent-switchable amphiphilic diarylethene. This compound performs stable vesicle aggregation in water and shows aggregation-dependent emission in its open form. The fluorescence can be effectively switched by alternating between UV and visible light irradiation. This compound thus can stain KB cells for switchable living cell imaging with excellent resistance to fatigue.”
“Objective: Identification of catheter-related bloodstream infection

Navitoclax (CR-BSI) risk factors and determination of whether intervention related to identified risk factors would reduce CR-BSI rates. Design: Prospective, observational, interventional and interrupted time-series study. Setting: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in a university hospital. Methods: During a 7-year period, 609 central venous catheters (CVC) were placed in 389 patients. CR-BSI risk factors were determined by multivariate analysis during two periods (January 2000-November 2002 and January 2003-April 2007). An intervention to reduce identified risk factors was performed after the first period. CR-BSI rates per 1,000 catheters-days were compared during the two periods. Results: The CR-BSI rate was 11.94 [(95% CI 7.94-15.

sAPP alpha shedding

sAPP alpha shedding Erismodegib is inhibited by P2X7R antagonists or knockdown

of P2X7R with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and is not observed in neural cells from P2X7R-deficient mice. P2X7R-dependent APP-cleavage is independent of extracellular calcium and strongly inhibited by hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors, TAPI-2 and GM6001. However, knockdown of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-9 (ADAM9), ADAM10 and ADAM17 by specific siRNA, known to have alpha-secretase activity, does not block the P2X7R-dependent non-amyloidogenic pathway. Using several specific pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase modules Erk1/2 and JNK are involved in P2X7R-dependent alpha-secretase activity. Our study suggests that P2X7R, which is expressed in hippocampal neurons and glial cells, is a potential therapeutic target in AD.”
“Recent studies showed that most cells have receptors and enzymes responsible for metabolism of vitamin D. Several diseases have been linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain syndromes

such as fibromyalgia. The association between fibromyalgia and vitamin D deficiency is very controversial in the literature with conflicting studies and methodological problems, which leads to more questions Sapitinib clinical trial than answers. The purpose of this article is to raise questions about the association of hypovitaminosis D with fibromyalgia considering causal relationships, treatment, and pathophysiological explanations.”
“Objective: To study the association between the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE epsilon 4) and delirium in a stroke population. Methods: 527 consecutive stroke patients were screened for delirium during the first week of admission with the confusion assessment method. In three hundred fifty-three patients genomic DNA isolation was available. Results: The incidence of delirium after stroke in the 353 patients was 11.3%. There was no association between APOE epsilon 4 and delirium. Even after adjustment for IQCODE,

stroke localization, stroke subtype, stroke severity, infection, and brain atrophy no association was found (odds ratio: 0.9; JQ-EZ-05 molecular weight 95% confidence interval: 0.4-2.1). Delirium did not last longer in patients with an APOE epsilon 4 allele compared to patients without an APOE epsilon 4 allele (median: 5.6 days [range: 1-21] versus median: 4.6 days [range: 1-15], p = 0.5). Conclusion: There was no association between the presence of an APOE epsilon 4 allele and the occurrence of delirium in the acute phase after stroke.”
“Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and symptom severity of children with obsessive disorder (OCD) plus autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children with OCD plus Tourette’s syndrome (TS) or OCD alone.


“Motor neuron diseases (MNDs)


“Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) YM155 are characterized by selective death of motor neurons and include mainly adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Neurodegeneration is not the single pathogenic event occurring during disease progression. There are multiple lines of evidence for the existence of defects

in lipid metabolism at peripheral level. For instance, hypermetabolism is well characterized in ALS, and dyslipidemia correlates with better prognosis in patients. Lipid metabolism plays also a role in other MNDs. In SMA, misuse of lipids as energetic nutrients is described in patients and in related animal models. The composition of structural lipids in the

central nervous system is modified, with repercussion on membrane fluidity and on cell signaling mediated by bioactive lipids. Here, we review the main epidemiologic and mechanistic findings Acalabrutinib that link alterations of lipid metabolism and motor neuron degeneration, and we discuss the rationale of targeting these modifications for therapeutic management of MNDs.”
“Study Design. A prospective study was performed.\n\nObjective. To assess an unusual technique for corpectomy and expandable cage placement via single-stage posterior approach in acute thoracic or lumbar burst fractures.\n\nSummary and Background Data. Burst fractures represent 10% to 20% of all spine injuries at or near the thoracolumbar junction, and can cause neurologic complications and kyphotic deformity. The goal of surgical intervention is to decompress the neural elements, restore vertebral

body height, correct angular deformity, and stabilize the columns of the spine.\n\nMethods. selleck chemicals The study comprised 14 patients (8 women and 6 men aged 40.3 years) who had 1 spinal burst fracture between T8 and L4 and who underwent single-stage posterior corpectomy, circumferential reconstruction with expandable-cage placement, and transpedicle screwing between January 2003 and May 2005. Neurologic status was classified using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale and functional outcomes were analyzed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. The kyphotic angle (alpha) and lordotic angle (beta) were measured in the thoracic or thoracolumbar and lumbar regions, respectively.\n\nResults. The mean follow-up time was 24 months (range, 12-48 months). Neurologic status was in 7 patients (preop: ASIA-E, postop: unchanged), 2 patients (preop: ASIA-D, postop: 1 unchanged, 1 improved to ASIA-E), 3 patients (preop: ASIA-C, postop: 2 improved to ASIA-D, 1 improved to ASIA-E), 2 patients (preop: ASIA-B, postop: 1 improved to ASIA-C, 1 unchanged). The mean operative time was 187.8 minutes. The mean blood loss was 596.4 mL.


“Ba0 6Sr0 4TiO3 (BST)/MgO columnar composites are fabricat


“Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/MgO columnar composites are fabricated via the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The microstructure, dielectric and tunable properties of columnar composites are investigated. The unmodified BST Curie temperatures with the increase of MgO addition indicate a sufficient suppression of ions interdiffusion between the two phases. The dielectric constant is decreased from 7000 to 3800 when MgO weight ratio is up to 15% while the tunability still stays at high level over 45%. The coefficient of the dielectric nonlinearity beta shows a growing trend with increasing

MgO content. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical prediction and confirm that if the composite is fabricated in columnar model, a reduction of dielectric constant without a deterioration of tunability could be achieved, which make them useful for potential tunable device applications in wireless GSK1838705A mouse communication system. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Molecular docking is an important tool in screening large libraries of compounds to determine the interactions between potential drugs and the target proteins. The molecular docking problem is how to locate a good conformation to dock a ligand to the large molecule. It can be formulated as a parameter optimization problem consisting of a scoring function and a global optimization method. Many docking

methods have been developed with primarily these two parts varying. In this paper, a variety of particle swarm optimization (PSO) variants were introduced to cooperate with the semiempirical free energy force JQ1 price field in AutoDock 4.05. The search ability and the docking accuracy of these methods were evaluated

by multiple redocking experiments. The results demonstrate that PSOs were more suitable than Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Among all of the PSO variants, FIPS takes precedence over others. Compared with the four state-of-art docking methods-GOLD, DOCK, FlexX and AutoDock with LGA, AutoDock cooperated with FIPS is more accurate. Thus, FIPS is an efficient PSO variant which has promising prospects that can be expected in the application to virtual screening.”
“The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium infects all major vertebrate groups and causes significant diarrhea selleck inhibitor in humans, with a spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Children and immunodeficient individuals are disproportionately affected, especially in developing countries, where cryptosporidiosis contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in preschool-age children. Despite the enormous disease burden from cryptosporidiosis, no antiprotozoal agent or vaccine exists for effective treatment or prevention. Cryptosporidiosis involving the respiratory tract has been described for avian species and mammals, including immunocompromised humans.

7) Results: SEE (1756 +/- 393 kcal/d) was 7 6% higher than REE (

7). Results: SEE (1756 +/- 393 kcal/d) was 7.6% higher than REE (1632 +/- 346 kcal/d) (P < .001). This difference (123 +/- 214 kcal/d) was smaller than that using the predictive equation for REE by Harris and Benedict (207 +/- 217 kcal/d) and the BMI group-specific equations according to Muller et al (209 +/- 190 kcal/d). Linear regression analysis was significant (r(2) = 0.705; P < .001). SEE showed similar 95% confidence intervals compared with both of the predictive equations. Conclusions: The described standardized

assessment of SEE by a PA device appears to be a promising approach to estimate REE in an ambulatory NCT-501 mw setting. SEE reflects REE at least as precisely as the predictive equations. (Nutr Clin Pract. 2012;27:825-831)”
“In this paper we have coupled the CMAQ and ADMS air quality models to predict hourly concentrations

of NOx, NO2 and O-3 for London at a spatial scale of 20 m x 20 m. Model evaluation has demonstrated reasonable agreement with measurements from 80 monitoring sites in London. For NO2 the model evaluation statistics gave 73% of the hourly concentrations within a factor of two of observations, a mean bias of -4.7 ppb and normalised mean bias of -0.17, a RMSE value of 17.7 and an r value of 0.58. The equivalent results for O-3 were 61% (FAC2), 2.8 ppb (MB), 0.15 (NMB), 12.1 (RMSE) and 0.64 (r). Analysis of the errors in the model predictions by hour of the week showed the need for improvements in predicting the magnitude BI 6727 cost of road transport related NOX emissions as well as the hourly emissions scaling in the model. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of UK road transport NOX emissions, reported elsewhere. The predictions of wind speed using the WRF model also influenced the model results and contributed to the daytime over prediction of NOX concentrations at the central London background site at Kensington and Chelsea. An investigation of the use of a simple NO-NO2-O-3 chemistry scheme showed good performance close to road sources, and AG-881 mouse this is also consistent with previous studies. The coupling of the two models raises an issue of emissions double counting. Here, we have put forward

a pragmatic solution to this problem with the result that a median double counting error of 0.42% exists across 39 roadside sites in London. Finally, whilst the model can be improved, the current results show promise and demonstrate that the use of a combination of regional scale and local scale models can provide a practical modelling tool for policy development at intergovernmental, national and local authority level, as well as for use in epidemiological studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The first in this series of articles explored issues faced when treating a medical colleague looked at the barriers to doctors receiving the best possible medical care. These barriers were discussed from the point of view of both the treating doctor and the patient doctor.

The plant then exists completely inside its host, Euphorbia polyg

The plant then exists completely inside its host, Euphorbia polygona (Euphorbiaceae), which has a soft succulent cactus-like body. Other parasitic plants that grow entirely within their hosts have extremely modified, very simple bodies, and we suspected that V. minimum does as well. Our objective was to examine the body of V. minimum inside its host and determine the

ways its morphogenesis differs from that of ordinary plants such as Arabidopsis.\n\nMethodology. Plants PLX3397 research buy of E. polygona infected with V. minimum were dissected, fixed, embedded in wax, and prepared for LM. Because the host is so soft and easy to microtome, numerous samples were examined from many sites in the infected plants.\n\nPivotal results. Morphogenesis of V. minimum is highly altered and differs greatly from that of ordinary nonparasitic

plants. Viscum minimum has no leaves, roots or stems; no epidermis or endodermis. Its vessel elements and sieve tube members form just small patches rather than continuous vessels or sieve tubes. Viscum minimum grows by multicellular apical meristems varying from 2 to 9 cells wide that produce axes of pure parenchyma, lacking the patterns of tissues typical of stems or roots.\n\nConclusions. Parasitic plants evolved from photosynthetic ancestors, so their morphogenic genes must be orthologous to those of model plants such as Arabidopsis, Zea, and others. But morphogenic CAL-101 cost programs in V. minimum must be highly modified, so molecular genetic studies of morphogenesis in V. minimum would greatly expand our understanding Selleck CYT387 of morphogenesis in all plants.”
“Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects

our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties.”
“Understanding and applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important, and all health care professions need basic training to effectively assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling, and treatment to their patients.

The present study screens a large cohort of non-acute promyelocyt

The present study screens a large cohort of non-acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) AML patients (207 patients) for the presence of FLT3 and NPM1 mutations and further correlates with cytogenetics, immunophenotypic characteristics and with

follow-up data wherever available. During the course of study, 56 APL patients were also studied. Briefly, both FLT3 (internal tandem duplication (ITD) in 19.4 % and Lapatinib in vitro tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) in 9 %) and NPM1 mutations were detected in 28.4 % of the total non-APL AML patients screened showing distinct correlations with hematologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetics characteristics and follow-up. With regards to adult APL patients, 22.2 and 32.6 % of the patients showed FLT3 and NPM1 mutation, respectively. In the pediatrics age group (< 15 years), 23 and16 % of patients with APL showed FLT3 and NPM1 mutation, respectively, while in non-APL patient is this age group, 23 % of patients showed both FLT3 and NPM1 mutation. NPM1 mutation was distinctly uncommon in younger age group of patients. In contrast to report elsewhere, Danusertib cost most of our FLT3 mutation was in exon 11 rather than in exon 12.

FLT3mutation due to ITD or TKD mutation was detected in 2:1 ratio in our patients and a new TKD mutation was also detected S840G in an M5 patient who did not go into remission and had a short survival of 3 months from diagnosis. Generally, patients with NPM1 mutation had a very high white cell count but they went into remission more often than those with wild (Wt)-type allele (written as NPM1- and FLT3-, respectively) and FLT3 mutation. These patients also tended to have significantly lower expression of CD34 antigen on flowcytometry. Distinct prognostic subclasses of adult AML patients were identified based on PND-1186 mouse the presence of NPM1 and FLT3 mutations.”
“A customized cDNA chip analysis provided the relative expression profiling of 1439 ESTs of Chaetoceros neogracile

in culture environments maintained between 4 and 10 degrees C. Among the 1439 probes, 21.5% were differentially regulated (>= 2-fold) by the temperature upshift within three days. Up-regulation was more prominent among cytoprotective genes, whereas down-regulation was featured in photosynthetic genes. A third of the differentially expressed genes had an unknown function or no similarity to known genes, highlighting their potential importance as a resource to identify key players in the acclimation response of polar algae under thermal stress. Our transcriptome analysis also revealed novel aspects of temperature-responsive, coordinated changes in the abundance of specific mRNAs, along with the rapid establishment of molecular homeostasis in polar algae.

Methods -An open-label, cross-over, comparative bioavailabili

\n\nMethods.-An open-label, cross-over, comparative bioavailability study was conducted in 20 healthy subjects at a single center in the USA. Following randomization, fasted subjects received a single dose of each of the 4 treatments separated by a 7-day washout. Blood samples were taken pre-dose and serially

over 14 hours post-dose for PK analysis.\n\nResults.-Quantitative measurement of residuals in used Breath Powered devices demonstrated that the devices delivered 8 +/- 0.9mg (mean +/- standard deviation) of sumatriptan powder in each nostril (total dose 16mg). Although the extent of systemic exposure over 14 hours was similar following Breath Powered delivery of 16-mg sumatriptan powder and 20-mg liquid nasal spray (area under the curve [AUC]0- 64.9ng*hour/mL vs 61.1ng*hour/mL), NCT-501 in vitro sumatriptan powder, despite a 20% lower dose, produced 27% higher peak exposure (Cmax 20.8ng/mL vs 16.4ng/mL) and 61% higher exposure in the first 30 minutes compared with the nasal spray (AUC0-30minutes 5.8 ng*hour/mL vs 3.6ng*hour/mL). The magnitude of difference is larger on a per-milligram basis. The absorption profile following standard nasal spray

demonstrated bimodal peaks, consistent with lower early followed by higher later absorptions. In contrast, the profile following Breath Powered delivery showed higher early and lower late absorptions. Relative to the 100-mg oral tablet (Cmax 70.2ng/mL, AUC0-, 308.8ng*hour/mL) and 6-mg injection (Cmax 111.6ng/mL, AUC0- 128.2ng*hour/mL), the peak https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html and overall exposure following Breath Powered intranasal delivery of sumatriptan powder was substantially lower.\n\nConclusions.-Breath Powered intranasal delivery of sumatriptan powder is a more efficient form of drug delivery, producing a higher peak and earlier exposure with a lower delivered dose than nasal spray and faster absorption than either nasal spray or oral administration. It also produces a significantly lower peak and total systemic exposure than oral tablet or subcutaneous injection.”
“Condensation of 1-chloro-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranose with dibenzooxabicycloamine

AG-881 derivatives in the presence of freshly prepared Ag(2)CO(3) catalyst was studied for the first time. New 1,2-trans-glycosides containing dibenzooxabicycloamines were prepared.”
“A significant number of zoonotic emerging and re-emerging waterborne pathogens like Aeromonas hydrophila possess virulence factors associated with human disease, and hence represent a serious public health concern. A total of 418 drinking water samples analyzed for occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila and faecal coliforms (E.coli), detected Aeromonas hydrophila in 84.71% of Municipal Corporation (MC), 71.52% Submersible pump and 68.75% from Hand pumps where as E.coli in 53.71% of Municipal Corporation (MC), 29.16% Submersible pump and none of samples from Hand pumps.

By the characterization of SEM and XRD, the effective regeneratio

By the characterization of SEM and XRD, the effective regeneration of human dentin induced by G4-PO3H2 is characterized and illustrated both in vitro (artificial saliva) and in vivo (oral cavity check details of rats). It is noted that the thickness of the regenerated mineral layers are more than 10 mu m both in vitro and in vivo. The design strategy of G4-PO3H2 may be valuable for researchers in the fields of material science, stomatology and medicine to prepare various promising restorative

nano-materials for biomineralized hard tissues such as bone and teeth. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The lubber grasshopper (Romalea microptera) has three major hemolymph proteins with apparent sizes on native PAGE of 90, 270, and 500 kDa and subunit sizes (79, 81 and 82 kDa respectively) determined by SDS-PAGE. Trypsin fragments from each protein band were sequenced, used to design degenerate primers to amplify core cDNA fragments, which were extended by 5′ IWR-1-endo inhibitor and 3′ RACE. All three cDNAs were closely related to insect hexamerins, had an N-terminal signal sequence, and their transcripts were found solely in the fat body. Adult females fed an ad libitum diet had their highest hexamerin levels on day 18 when oocytes begin rapid growth. Hexamerin levels fell as oocytes reached their maximum length on day 30. Animals fed a

restricted diet had their highest hexamerin levels

on day 30 which then fell as oocytes reached their maximum length on day 36. Hexamerin mRNA levels were only modestly different for animals on the two diets, indicating that nutrition affected translation of the hexamerin mRNA. Allatectomized animals treated with juvenile hormone III (JH) or methoprene KU-57788 nmr caused the appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph, but had no effect on hexamerin levels. Thus, JH does not appear to directly regulate hexamerin production. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Novel block copolymers comprising poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and an oligo(tyrosine) block were synthesized in different compositions by N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerization. It was shown that PEG2000-Tyr(6) undergoes thermoresponsive hydrogelation at a low concentration range of 0.25-3.0 wt % within a temperature range of 25-50 degrees C. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) revealed a continuous network of fibers throughout the hydrogel sample, even at concentrations as low as 0.25 wt %. Circular dichroism (CD) results suggest that better packing of the beta-sheet tyrosine block at increasing temperature induces the reverse thermogelation. A preliminary assessment of the potential of the hydrogel for in vitro application confirmed the hydrogel is not cytotoxic, is biodegradable, and produced a sustained release of a small-molecule drug.

This result supports the necessity of considering labor progressi

This result supports the necessity of considering labor progression when developing intrapartum fetal monitoring using the

entropy indices of FHR. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is relatively uncommon, affecting approximately 1 in 140 LY2090314 in vitro 000 individuals in the U. K., it is an important disease not to miss owing to the risk of acute severe liver disease in 2% of cases. EPP occurs with clinical and histological changes in the skin associated with free-radical-associated dermal vascular damage. This also mediates the painful photosensitivity. Severe and disfiguring hyaline deposition is extremely rare. We demonstrate that severe EPP can cause disfiguring hyaline infiltration of the skin on the hands and face, which sheds light on the mechanism of photosensitivity in EPP; it must also be differentiated from conditions such as lipoid proteinosis.”
“Microsites created by live plants and non-living structures can be important for plant establishment where abiotic stress is high. The activity of herbivores and resulting pattern of seedling survival also affects plant distributions. We investigated factors thought to influence survival of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva

Bailey) seedlings in the White Mountains, California, USA, with two field experiments Selleckchem Anlotinib in which microsite and exposure to herbivory were manipulated. In the microsite experiment, we planted seedlings underneath wooden shade structures, underneath sagebrush plants, and in exposed locations. In the herbivory experiment, we tested the effects of herbivore exclusion in three different habitat types. We planted seedlings in www.selleckchem.com/products/shp099-dihydrochloride.html full wire cages (herbivores excluded), in half cages (herbivores allowed while enabling assessment of possible non-herbivore effects of cages on seedling survival), or with no cage (herbivores allowed), and repeated these treatments in three habitats: below, within, and above a bristlecone woodland. Over three growing seasons, seedlings planted under wooden shade structures had higher survival (28.9%) than seedlings growing under sagebrush (10%) or in exposed

areas (3.3%). We found a significant treatment by habitat interaction in the herbivory experiment (x(2) = 12.056, P = 0.017), driven by a clear pattern of high herbivory inside the bristlecone woodland, but not above or below it. Our results suggest that biologically-derived microsites (shelter from dead wood and live shrubs), as well as herbivore-mediated density-dependent mortality, are important determinants of bristlecone pine seedling survival. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are multiprotein complexes consisting of nucleoporins and function in transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In yeast, nucleoporins have also been linked to gene expression as well as to chromatin insulating activity.