Macdonald, F Rougieux, A Cuevas,

Macdonald, F. Rougieux, A. Cuevas, LY3023414 et al., Journal of Applied Physics 105, 093704 (2009)]. However, this dependency contradicts observations of LID in compensated n-type silicon wafers [T. Schutz-Kuchly, J. Veirman, S. Dubois, et al., Applied Physics Letters 96, 1 (2010)], which are confirmed in this study by investigating the boron-oxygen complex formation on a large variety of compensated p- and n-type samples. In spite of their high boron content, compensated n-type samples may show a less pronounced LID than p-type samples containing less boron. Our experiments indicate that in compensated silicon, the defect concentration is only a function

of the compensation ratio R(C) = (N(A) + N(D))/(N(A) – N(D)). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3552302]“
“Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the USA. Consequently, there is an increasing number of obese diabetic patients who would otherwise be appropriate learn more candidates for pancreas transplantation (PTx). This is a retrospective study of all PTx performed at Indiana University between 2003 and 2009 (n = 308) comparing recipients with body mass index (BMI) < 25, 25-29.9, and >= 30 kg/m(2) Data included recipient and donor demographics, seven and 90-d graft loss, one-yr pancreas, kidney (for SPK only) and patient survival, causes of graft

loss and death, peak amylase and lipase, length of stay, readmissions, complications, HbA1C, and c-peptide. Of the 308 PTx, 100 (32%) were overweight and 42 (14%) were obese. Obese recipients were older and more likely to be men. Donor demographics were similar. There was no difference in seven-d or 90-d graft loss, one-yr pancreas, kidney or patient survival, cause of graft loss or death, 30-d peak amylase or lipase, HbA1C, or C-peptide. The incidence of post-transplant technical, immunological and infectious complications was similar except for an increased

incidence of cytomegalovirus infection in the obese group. Two recipients returned to insulin therapy despite normal C-peptide levels. Although technically challenging, PTx can be successful in select obese recipients with similar results compared to normal BAY 63-2521 BMI recipients.”
“Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with encephalitis is a life-threatening condition that requires treatment with immunochemotherapy; refractory patients are eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report on an adolescent female who failed to respond to induction immunochemotherapy and was salvaged by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical, Epstein-Barr virus-seropositive brother leading to rapid clearance of Epstein-Barr virus from blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

Copyright (C) 2013 S Karger AG, Basel”
“Aim: To examine the

Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Aim: To examine the feasibility and validity of computerized ambulatory monitoring in drug-dependent women.

Method: 61 women recruited from public Substance abuse treatment centers in Montreal, Canada participated in the current study, 84% of whom reported past 30-day polysubstance use. Mood states, craving, and drug use were assessed by standard clinical instruments and by electronic interviews during 7-days of computerized ambulatory monitoring. Feasibility was assessed by examining compliance with

intensive monitoring and equipment loss. Concurrent validity was assessed by examining the degree of correspondence of ambulatory data on craving, mood, and Substance use with clinic-based assessments of similar constructs.

Result: Participants completed an Selleckchem KU57788 average 80% of all electronic assessments and no data collection devices were lost or stolen. Relationships among mood, stress, consumption, and SB203580 inhibitor craving assessed in the electronic interviews conformed to well-established patterns, and evidence of concurrent validity were found between scores

from standard clinical instruments and similar constructs in daily life. Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CESD) scores were positively related to sad mood reported during the electronic interviews (p = 0.001) and negatively related to happy mood states (p<0.001), explaining approximately 20% of the

variance in each mood state. ASI drug use seventy scores were positively associated with craving (p<0.001) and substance use (p<0.001), and explained 46% and 30% of these outcomes, respectively.

Conclusion: Angiogenesis inhibitor Computerized ambulatory monitoring is a feasible and valid data collection strategy in drug-dependent individuals. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder characterized by repeated apnoeic episodes during sleep. Neurocognitive changes secondary to OSAS are likely to occur due to hypoxia in certain brain locations. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging technology, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), enable non-invasive and accurate identification of OSAS-induced changes. Objective: We aimed to use DWI to investigate changes in the brain secondary to hypoxia in OSAS. Methods: Eighty-eight patients underwent polysomnography and were classified as non-OSAS, mild-moderate OSAS and severe OSAS sufferers. DWI was used to evaluate 14 areas of the brain, and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated. We investigated whether there were differences in the ADC values in specific areas of the brain between the non-OSAS and OSAS patients. Results: We measured the ADC values of the 68 newly diagnosed OSAS patients (21 mild, 15 moderate and 32 severe) and of 20 healthy controls.

Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the

Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the laboratory strain Dongola were able to successfully mate only 11 h after emergence and 42% of the males had already completed rotation. A small proportion of the same age females were inseminated. Wild males showed a much slower genitalia rotation rate. At 17 h post-emergence, 96% of the laboratory-reared males had completed genitalia rotation whereas none of the wild males

had.

Conclusion: This colony has been cultured in the laboratory for over one hundred generations, and now has accelerated sexual maturation when compared with the wild strain. This outcome demonstrates the kinds of selection that can be expected during insect colonization Z-IETD-FMK in vivo and maintenance, particularly when generations are non-overlapping and similar-age males must compete for mates.”
“Background: Exuberant granulation tissue (EGT), Sotrastaurin molecular weight a fibrotic healing disorder resembling the human keloid, occurs almost exclusively

in limb wounds of horses and may be caused in part by a relative state of hypoxia within the wound.

Objective: The objectives of this study were therefore to (1) assess the effects of hypoxia on equine dermal fibroblast (EDF) proliferation and apoptosis, (2) study the effects of hypoxia on the expression of key extracellular matrix (ECM) associated proteins and determine if such effects are this website dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), and (3) determine if EDFs from the body or limb respond differently to hypoxia.

Methods: EDFs were isolated and cultured from skin from body or limb under normoxic or hypoxic conditions for up to 7 days.

Results: Hypoxia significantly stimulated EDF proliferation, but had no effect on cell survival. The hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl(2) up-regulated COL1A1 expression and down-regulated MMP2 expression, suggesting an increase in ECM synthesis and a decrease in turnover. Both regulatory effects were inhibited by the addition of echinomycin, indicating that they are mediated by the transcriptional regulatory

activity of HIF. No differences were observed between EDFs originating from body or limb for any effect of hypoxia or CoCl(2), suggesting that EGT development does not depend on intrinsic properties of limb fibroblasts.

Conclusions: We conclude that hypoxia regulates ECM remodeling via HIFI in EDFs, and that this may be an important determinant in the pathogenesis of equine EGT. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The 3.5-Myr-old hominin cranium KNM-WT 40000 from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana, has been assigned to a new hominin genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops, on the basis of a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features. Central to the diagnosis of K.

Of 112

Of 112 Cell Cycle inhibitor patients, 28 (25%) underwent fascial anchoring, and 84 (75%) received tined leads. Within 2 years of implantation, lead migration occurred in 26% of fascial and 10% of tined anchoring systems (RR, 2.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-5.93)). Patients with fascial anchors were followed for a longer period of time. Therefore, Kaplan-Meier curves were compared showing no difference in risk of lead migration (p = 0.09). Four of eight (50%) lead migrations in tined leads occurred within the first 3 months after implantation.

Two years after sacral neuromodulator implantation, lead migration is similar between

fascial-anchored and tined leads.”
“Epitaxial thin films of biferroic (Bi1-xLax)(2)NiMnO6 have been grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates. High resolution electron microscopy, energy-loss spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation have been used to demonstrate that, under appropriate growth conditions, stoichiometric, and fully oxidized thin films with long-range

order of Ni2+ and Mn4+ ions can be obtained, despite the presence of randomly distributed dissimilar cations (Bi, La) at the A-site. This ordering leads to Ni2+-O-Mn4+ ferromagnetic interactions and its preservation in thin films is key for implementation of these biferroic materials in practical devices. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3524278]“
“Purpose To compare the induction of double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells irradiated by 250 GW-572016 clinical trial and 350 CV ultrasoft X-rays and assess the residual yield of breaks 2 hours post irradiation in order to unravel https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sbe-b-cd.html the correlation between the sharp increase in cell-killing efficiency of ultrasoft X-rays above versus below the carbon-K threshold (284 eV) and the induction of core events in DNA atoms

Materials and methods. V79-4 hamster cells were irradiated with synchrotron ultrasoft X-rays at isoattenuating energies

of 250 eV and 350 eV DSB were quantified using Pulse field gel electrophoresis Results A significant increase in DSB induction was observed for 350 CV ultrasoft X-rays above the carbon-K threshold, compared to 250 eV below the threshold, per unit dose to the cell. The DSB induced by the 350 eV ultrasoft X-rays were less repaired 2 h after irradiation

Conclusion The increased DSB induction at 350 eV is attributed 10 the increase In the relative proportion of photon interactions in DNA resulting in significant dose inhomogeneity across the cell with a local increase in dose to DNA It results from all increase in carbon-K shell interactions and the short range of the electrons produced Core ionisations in DNA, through core-hole relaxation in conjunction with localised effects of spatially correlated low-energy photo- and Auger-electrons lead to an increase in number and the complexity of DSB.”
“In this paper, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects by naturally occurring Chinese yam particles are observed and quantified.

Conclusions: The incidence of BTX-A Abs should be verified in non

Conclusions: The incidence of BTX-A Abs should be verified in nonresponders. More data are necessary to check the clinical relevance and risk of BTX-A Ab formation, especially in long-term follow-up, to optimize patient selection for this minimally invasive treatment option in OAB. Copyright selleck compound (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties

and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various buy PF-00299804 distances from

target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti(1+), Ti(2+), Ar(1+), and Ar(2+) ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance

between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3486018]“
“Purpose: To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of steady-state, high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the lower leg, performed with a blood pool contrast agent, with selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease.

Materials and Methods: Local ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. In a nonrandomized trial, selective DSA and MR angiography were performed at 3.0 click here T with a blood pool contrast agent on 22 calves in 20 patients (mean age, 69.4 years +/- 11.3 [standard deviation]), 16 men (mean age, 67.8 years +/- 12.4) and four women (mean age, 75.6 years +/- 3.6 years), to evaluate 352 arterial segments. DSA and MR angiography were performed within 24 hours of each other and directly compared by three experienced, blinded radiologists by using high-spatial-resolution steady-state MR angiograms. Consensus reading for both DSA and MR angiography served as the reference standard.

Results: MR angiography was successful and occurred without serious adverse events in all patients.

Compared to SPECT, beta reserve cutoff 1 6 had AUC 0 817, sensiti

Compared to SPECT, beta reserve cutoff 1.6 had AUC 0.817, sensitivity 81%, and specificity 66% while MBF reserve cutoff 1.9 had AUC 0.760, sensitivity 79%, and specificity 63% in DM patients.

Conclusion: Diabetes is associated with myocardial microvascular

abnormalities as evidenced by abnormal myocardial perfusion on visual and quantitative MCE.”
“The jasmonates are a group of plant-growth regulators that cause a wide variety of plant responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, which causes toxicity in living organisms, and is considered as an environmental contaminant. In present investigation, the interactive effects of methyl jasmonate (0, 0.01 or 0.1 mM) and cadmium chloride (0 or 500 mu M) on malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide selleck compound (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes in soybean (Glycine max L.) leaves were studied. Treatment of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) together with cadmium reduced the amount of H(2)O(2) and MDA when compared with cadmium treated plants. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), increased in treated plants with MeJA, and Cd, but guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity did not show any noticeable difference. In addition, MeJA treatment increased the amount of

dehydro ascorbic acid (DHA) in plants under Cd stress whereas, there was no significant difference in the content of ascorbic acid (ASA). Based on our results, it seems that the application

of MeJA together with Cd caused alleviation of Cd damages by the reduction of MDA and H(2)O(2) content and increase in activities of Autophagy Compound Library solubility dmso antioxidant enzymes in soybean plants.”
“Fast and stable selleck chemicals 2-fold accumulation of cytokinins (CKs) was detected initially in roots and then in shoots of 4-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seedlings in the course of their treatment with 0.4 mu M 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). Elevated cytokinin level has been maintained only in the presence of EBR, while the hormone removal has led to return of cytokinin concentration to the control level initially in the roots and then in the shoots. EBR-induced accumulation of cytokinins was accompanied by inhibition of both cytokinin oxidase (CKX) (cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, EC 1.5.99.12) activity and expression of the gene coding for this enzyme, and on the contrary the decline in CKs level resulted in increase in these characteristics up to the control level in roots and then in shoots. Sharp accumulation of cytokinin O-glucosides has been discovered in response to EBR-treatment suggesting fast EBR-induced activation of production of cytokinins, which excessive amounts were transferred into the storage forms. The obtained data provide evidence for the involvement of EBR in regulation of cytokinin level in wheat seedlings. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factors.

Design-Multicenter retrospective case series

Animals-

Design-Multicenter retrospective case series.

Animals-114 dogs.

Procedures-Medical records for dogs treated surgically because of sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Sepsis was diagnosed on the basis of results of bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid, gross evidence of gastrointestinal tract leakage at surgery, or both. Renal dysfunction was defined as a

>= 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine Mixed Lineage Kinase inhibitor concentration after surgery. Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined as hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment. Respiratory dysfunction was defined as a need for supplemental oxygen administration or mechanical ventilation. Hepatic dysfunction was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration > 0.5 mg/dL. Dysfunction of coagulation was defined as prolonged prothrombin buy HKI-272 time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, or platelet

count <= 100,000/mu L.

Results-89 (78%) dogs had dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems, and 57 (50%) dogs had MODS. Mortality rate increased as the number of dysfunctional organ systems increased. Mortality rate was 70% (40/57) for dogs with MODS and 25% (14/57) for dogs without.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:83-87)”
“The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm.

The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role this website in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content.


“Cutaneous spindle cell tumors share the common feature of


“Cutaneous spindle cell tumors share the common feature of appearing as spindle-shaped cells on light microscopy. Their pathogenesis, presentation, and prognosis are highly variable,

and numerous techniques for workup and treatment have been reported. We performed an analysis of the available scientific literature in order to codify the clinical, immunohistochemical, and biologic features of these tumors and to provide insight into the most effective practices for their management, with a focus on Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). In this article, the clinical and histopathological characteristics of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma, superficial leiomyosarcoma, desmoplastic melanoma, cutaneous angiosarcoma, and myofibrosarcoma are described, BIBF 1120 and methods for diagnosis, workup, treatment, and surveillance are evaluated. Cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms are diverse in origin, presentation, Galardin in vitro and behavior. Immunostaining assists in differentiating among the various types. Further workup is sometimes indicated to characterize local invasion or assess for metastatic disease. Surgery is typically the first-line treatment, and MMS is associated

with low recurrence rates and a tissue-sparing advantage for many tumors. Adjuvant treatments, including radiation therapy, molecular-targeted therapy, and conventional chemotherapy, are sometimes indicated, and close clinical surveillance is required after treatment.”
“Plant sterols are naturally occuring food components

VX-770 that are well known for their serum LDL-C-lowering ability. Recently, a new area of research into these components was initiated, as there are indications that plant sterols might enhance immune function and have anti-inflammatory effects. Plant sterols is appear to evoke a Th1 response, which might be beneficial in conditions characterized by decreased Th1 responses (e.g., HIV) or increased Th2 activity (e.g., allergy). In addition, decreased edema and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in mice have been reported. Although in humans effects on immune function seem promising, effect on inflammatory markers are far from consistent. Altogether, there is enough reason to initiate long-term, well-controlled intervention studies, specifically designed to examine the effects of plant sterol supplementation on immune function and markers of inflammation.”
“We calculate the efficiency with which magnetic tunnel junctions can be used as resonant detectors of incident microwave radiation via the spin-torque diode effect. The expression we derive is in good agreement with the sensitivities we measure for MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions with an extended (unpatterned) magnetic pinned layer.

We developed new tools based on the processing of confocal images

We developed new tools based on the processing of confocal images and a new statistical approach based on G- and F-distance functions used in spatial statistics. Our original computational scheme takes into account both size and shape variability by comparing, for each nucleus, the observed distribution against a reference distribution estimated by Monte-Carlo sampling over the same nucleus. This implicit normalization allowed similar data processing and extraction of rules in the five differentiated nuclei populations of the

three studied biological systems, despite differences Small molecule library chemical structure in chromosome number, genome organization and heterochromatin content. We showed that centromeres/chromocenters form significantly more regularly spaced patterns than expected under a completely random WH-4-023 situation, suggesting that repulsive constraints or spatial inhomogeneities underlay the spatial organization of heterochromatic compartments. The proposed technique should be useful for identifying further spatial features in a wide range of cell types.”
“Adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D are essential preventive strategies and essential parts of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. However,

calcium supplementation is not without controversy and benefits on skeletal health need to be balanced against potential risks on cardiovascular disease. The published data so far suggest a potential detrimental effect of calcium supplement on cardiovascular health (i.e. myocardial infarction) although

further prospective studies are needed to clarify the gradient of risk. Since food sources of calcium produce similar HSP990 benefits on bone density as supplements and dietary calcium intake does not seem to be related with adverse cardiovascular effects, calcium intake from nutritional sources needs to be enforced. In patients with low calcium intake supplements are warranted aiming for a total calcium intake of 800 to 1000 mg/d together with adequate vitamin D replacement. Nevertheless we should keep in mind that for significant reduction in fracture risk, pharmacological treatment is mandatory in patients at risk of fractures irrespective of calcium and vitamin D supplementation.”
“The effects of Si substitution for Al on the glass forming ability, Curie temperature T(C), magnetocaloric effect, and refrigeration capacity (RC) of melt-spun Gd-based Gd(65)Fe(20)Al(15-x)Si(x) (x = 0-7) glassy ribbons have been investigated. The small amounts of Si substitution for Al in the Gd(65)Fe(20)Al(15-x)Si(x) glassy ribbons with high T(x)/T(m) (>0.70) and small Delta T(m) (Delta T(m) = T(m)-T(x)) promote the formation of high thermal stability of these alloys.

Further investigations are needed to understand if these families

Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.”
“The Kinesin inhibitor composition and biological activities of tea polysaccharides (TPS) obtained by traditional water extraction, boiling water extraction and enzymatic extraction were investigated. Boiling water extraction (100 degrees C for 2 h) was found to be the optimal method with higher

yield of TPS (1.91%) consisting of higher contents of neutral saccharides (57.82%) and acid saccharides (26.95%) with lowest protein content (3.06%). TPS obtained by boiling water extraction exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase with the inhibitory rate of 86.67%. The inhibitory effect of TPS on alpha-glucosidase increased with increasing neutral polysaccharides content in TPS. TPS obtained by boiling water extraction (50 mu g/mL) had very strong proliferation effect on lymphocyte.”
“The influence of critical illnesses on adverse outcomes in newborn

infants seems to be mediated by nutritional intakes during the first week or few weeks of life. Changes in amounts and ratios of protein and energy, fat quality (medium chain triglycerides, and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), maintaining normoglycemia during full or partial parenteral nutrition, rate of feeding advancements and avoidance of postnatal growth Wnt cancer retardation represent the main items whose roles in critically ill preterm infants have been considered so far. In a condition such as extreme prematurity,

feeding higher amounts of amino acids since the first day of life has been shown so far to be safe and effective in terms of metabolic balance, body growth and neurodevelopment outcome. In other clinical conditions and as far as other nutrients are concerned, available data are still limited and do not allow for firm conclusions in most cases.”
“Solanaceous plants are widely ML323 datasheet distributed around the world and they are traditionally used as drugs for the treatment of cancer and herpes, and include familiar foods such as potato, tomato and eggplant and some berries popular in Brazil. As part of a program of research on pharmacologically active new molecules, the aim in this study was to assess the mutagenic effects of Solanum palinacanthum, known popularly as joa. The crude 95% ethanol extract and purified solamargine obtained from the fruits of S. palinacanthum Dunal were investigated by the Ames test, using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102 as test organisms, with and without metabolic activation. The concentrations tested ranged from 0.07 to 15.0 mg/plate for the crude ethanolic extract and from 1.25 to 5.0 mg/plate for the solamargine.