“Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormon

“Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormonal events accompanying delivery. We investigated whether blues-like symptoms depend on the rate of the decline of hormones, by comparing the behavioral consequences of an abrupt versus a gradual decline of gonadal hormones in an animal model.\n\nMethods: Female rats were treated with estrogen and progesterone for 23 days, administered either by injections or by subcutaneously implanted tubes filled

with hormones. A gradual hormone GS-9973 decline was achieved by discontinuation of the injections: and rapid decline by removal of the tubes. Control groups received either a continued treatment or no hormones. In the period following the decline the stress-reactivity was tested with an acoustic startle test on 3 consecutive days, and anxiety behavior with an open-field test on the 2nd day. Selleck Screening Library The Hypothalamus-, Pituitary-, Adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) response to stress was measured by assessing the corticosterone levels and hypothalamic c-fos expression stress-response at the 4th day.\n\nKey findings: The rapid decline of hormones induced an increased startle response

lasting for two days, and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field. This was not found in the gradual-decline and control groups. The HPA-axis response to stress was decreased in all hormone-treated animals.\n\nSignificance: This animal Study suggests that: 1) abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce increased stress-reactivity and anxiety-like behavior: 2) postpartum blues may result from

differences in the capacity to adapt to the changes of gonadal hormones; 3) Recovery of pregnancy-induced diminished HPA-axis response is independent of the postpartum hormone kinetics. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, PFTα nmr Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8 +/- 5.5 eggs in 15 days).

Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature wit

Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature without a catalyst. During micellization, the elimination of the allyl groups competitively occurred along with the photorearrangement of the 4-allyloxystyrene units into the 3-allyl-4-hydroxystyrene units.”
“Water pollution is a major environmental problem worldwide. In particular, shipyards are contaminating find more waters with iron,

lead and copper filings, paints, petrochemical products and solvents. There are only a few reports on the genotoxicity of shipyard contaminants. Here, we study genotoxic effects of surface water from five sites of Hooghly River in West Bengal, India, along the banks of which many shipbuilding and scrap industries are located. Genotoxicity selleck kinase inhibitor was measured by the detection of micronuclei in Allium cepa and other chromosomal aberrations, as well as damage to genomic DNA of calf thymus. Results show that A. cepa roots treated with contaminated water induced morphological distortions, formation of micronuclei and various types of chromosomal aberrations. The mitotic index was lower than 50 % in the treated samples. The breakage of calf thymus DNA was time-dependent with acute damage of 100 % for overnight incubation

as evidenced by agarose gel electrophoresis. We conclude that the workers of local shipbuilding and scrap industries, the residents of nearby areas and the aquatic biodiversity are vulnerable to contaminated waters.”
“Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are signaling organelles that are released by many cell types and is highly conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the mechanism of biogenesis, these membranous vesicles can be classified as exosomes, shedding microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs. It is becoming clearer that these

EVs mediate signal transduction in both autocrine and paracrine fashion by the transfer of proteins and RNA. While the role of EVs including exosomes in pathogenesis is well established, very little is known about their function in normal physiological conditions. Recent evidences allude that EVs canmediate both protective and pathogenic effects depending on the precise state. In this review, we discuss the involvement of EVs buy AZD7762 asmediators of signal transduction in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In addition, the role of EVs in mediating Wnt and PI3K signaling pathways is also discussed. Additional findings on the involvement of EVs in homeostasis and disease progression will promote a better biological understanding, advance future therapeutic, and diagnostic applications.”
“Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity.

All cross-sectional studies concerning prevalence of chronic hepa

All cross-sectional studies concerning prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran were included irrespective of date and language. The outcome of interest was prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection confirmed by blood specimen positive for HBsAg. The prevalence of

chronic hepatitis B infection was estimated about 1.7% or lower in general population; 0.8% (95% CI: 0.6% to 0.9%) in blood donors and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.3% to 4.1%) in intravenous drug users and varied from zero to 1.5% in beta thalassemic patients. Since mass vaccination in 1993, prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection has being reduced among children and adolescents. This reduction Fer-1 manufacturer call be attributed to the effectiveness of the national immunization program and it may impact on reduction of prevalence

of hepatitis B infection in general population.”
“BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies that have assessed patient awareness of the management of sickle cell disease (SCD) indicated a lack of awareness of the disease and possibly a need for more public education. Therefore, we measured public awareness in Bahrain of SCD.\n\nMETHODS: The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. A questionnaire was distributed among 2000 persons selected from among the general public. The participants had face-to-face interviews with either a health professional or a trained interviewer.\n\nRESULTS: Most (93%) had heard of SCD and 89% knew that it can be diagnosed by a blood test, but 51% did not buy JQ-EZ-05 know the prevalence of SCD in Bahrain. Eighty-four percent recognized it as a hereditary disorder and 72% said that it can skip generations. Females showed S63845 supplier better knowledge than

males and married persons seems to know more about SCD than unmarried ones.\n\nCONCLUSION: There is a good level of knowledge about SCD among the public, though some of the respondents were confused about the difference between the carrier state of a disease and the disease itself. There is wide acceptance and appreciation of the SCD prevention campaigns being conducted in Bahrain, such as the premarital service and the student screening program.”
“A method of ion-beam-induced reduction in oxides is used to produce metal-bismuth nanowires embedded into a matrix of a highly insulating dielectric-bismuth oxide. The metal film is formed in the process of reduction of the metal oxide by selective removal of oxygen atoms under irradiation by the beam of protons through a mask. The mask containing pairs of parallel nanowires with contact pads was fabricated using 50 kV electron-beam lithography in a single layer of 200-nm-thick ZEP-520 (Zeon Chemicals L. P., ZEP-520 electron-beam resist) electron-beam resist. Electrical properties of the fabricated nanowires have been studied.

Costs were highly correlated with exacerbation severity Indirect

Costs were highly correlated with exacerbation severity. Indirect costs have rarely been measured. The wide variability in the cost estimates reflected cross-study LY3023414 in vitro differences in geographic locations, treatment patterns, and patient populations. Important methodological differences also existed across studies. Researchers have used different definitions of exacerbation (e.g., symptom-versus event-based definitions), different tools to identify and measure exacerbations, and different classification systems to define exacerbation severity. Unreported exacerbations are common and may influence the long-term costs of exacerbations. Measurement of indirect costs will provide

a more comprehensive picture of the burden of exacerbations. Evaluation of pharmacoeconomic analyses would be aided by the use of more consistent and comprehensive approaches to defining and measuring COPD exacerbations.”
“Dawson type polyoxometallates K6P2MoxW18-xO62 (x=0, 5, 6) and alpha 1 and alpha 2-K7P2Mo5VW12O62 were prepared and characterized by BET, IR. UV-vis and P-31 NMR spectroscopies and thermal analysis (TG and DTA) and tested in

methanol oxidation at 260 degrees C in the presence of molecular oxygen. The Dawson compounds were found to be active in this reaction and the product distribution (formaldehyde, methyl formate, dimethylether, dimethoxymethane) depends on the polyanion composition and on the framework symmetry. alpha-K6P2W18O62 exhibits an excellent catalytic performance with ca. 27% of methanol

conversion and 98% Bafilomycin A1 of dimethylether selectivity. alpha 1-K7P2Mo5VW12O62 and alpha 2-K7P2Mo5VW12O62 show a similar activity (17-19% of conversion) with 49% of methyl formate selectivity and 41% of formaldehyde selectivity respectively. alpha-K6P2Mo6W12O62 is the most oxidizing catalyst and the most selective toward the methyl formate (ca. 53%). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Quality function deployment (QFD) is it customer-driven approach in processing new product developments in order to maximize customer satisfaction. HIF inhibitor Determining the fulfillment levels of design requirements (DRs) and parts characteristics (PCs) is ail important decision problem during QFD activity processes for new product development. Unlike the existing literature, which mainly focuses oil the determination of DRs, this paper proposes fuzzy linear programming models to determine the fulfillment levels of PCs under the requirement to achieve the determined contribution levels of DRs for customer satisfaction. In addition, considering the design risk, this paper incorporates failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) into QFD processes, which is treated its the constraint in the models. To cope with the vague nature of product development processes, fuzzy approaches are used for both FMEA and QFD. The illustration of the proposed models is performed with it numerical example to demonstrate the applicability in practice. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc.

The structure presents the experimental symmetries and a global a

The structure presents the experimental symmetries and a global agreement with an ab initio calculation. It

is therefore expected that the interatomic potential could be used in classical molecular dynamics calculations to study the graphene growth. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3357297]“
“Thymus xenotransplantation has been shown to induce tolerance to porcine xenografts in mice and to permit survival of alpha 1,3Gal-transferase knockout porcine kidney xenografts for months in nonhuman primates. We evaluated the ability of porcine thymus xenotransplantation to induce human T-cell tolerance using a humanized mouse (hu-mouse) model, where a human immune system is preestablished by implantation of fetal human thymus tissue under the kidney capsule and intravenous injection of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Human T-cell depletion with an anti-CD2 mAb following surgical removal of human GM6001 nmr thymic grafts GSK923295 datasheet prevented the initial rejection of porcine thymic xenografts in hu-mice. In these hu-mice, porcine thymic grafts were capable of supporting human thymopoiesis and T-cell development,

and inducing human T-cell tolerance to porcine xenoantigens. Human T cells from these mice responded strongly to third-party pig, but not to the thymic donor swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-matched pig stimulators in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. Anti-pig xenoreactive antibodies declined in these hu-mice, whereas antibody levels increased in nontolerant animals that rejected porcine thymus grafts. These data show that porcine thymic xenotransplantation can induce donor-specific tolerance in immunocompetent hu-mice, supporting this approach for tolerance induction in clinical xenotransplantation.”
“BackgroundCellulite is considered a noninflammatory

phenomenon characterized by alterations to the skin surface, with depressed and raised lesions. Few studies have evaluated subcutaneous fat in patients with cellulite, and there is no information about the anatomy of raised buy AZD1208 lesions.

MethodsSixty women with raised cellulite lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cellulite grade was evaluated using the Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS). Raised cellulite lesions were marked and compared with control areas on the opposite side of the body (buttocks, abdomen, and upper thighs).

ResultsMean age was 39.311.0years and average body mass index (BMI) was 25.4 +/- 4.1kg/m(2). There were no differences between the raised lesions and the control areas in the anatomy of the fat lobes and their size. CSS scores were higher in older patients and in those with higher BMI. Patients with higher BMI had more fat lobes.

ConclusionsThe anatomy of subcutaneous fat was similar in raised and control areas for shape, size, and thickness. Higher CSS scores were found in older patients and those with higher BMI.

Lastly, results of total hip arthroplasty for AVN in SCD has impr

Lastly, results of total hip arthroplasty for AVN in SCD has improved significantly over time with the use of cementless prosthetic

material and improved supportive care.SummarySBD remains poorly studied. Prospective randomized studies targeting predictors, diagnostics, prevention, and treatment options for SBD are sorely needed.”
“A growing number of patients, particularly those with advanced, chronic coronary artery disease, experience symptoms of angina that are refractory to treatment with beta-blockers, Linsitinib molecular weight calcium-channel blockers, and long-acting nitrates, despite revascularization. The management of patients with refractory angina who are unsuitable for further revascularization is strikingly different across the world, and is contingent on local resources and available expertise. Mortality in this patient population has decreased, but enhancing quality of life remains a challenge. New treatment principles are emerging in current practice, such as metabolic modulation, therapeutic angiogenesis, and novel interventional techniques (coronary in-flow redistribution and approaches to chronic total occlusion). The contemporary management of refractory

angina encourages individualized, patient-centred care in interdisciplinary, specialized clinics. Global initiatives are required to address complex clinical problem-solving for patients with refractory angina. In this Review, we discuss selleck chemicals the epidemiology of refractory angina, and provide an update on the pharmacological, noninvasive, and interventional options that are available to these patients or are under

“OBJECTIVE: To calculate the monetary value of tuberculosis (TB) elimination and of progress in TB control in twentieth-century Selleckchem CH5183284 England and Wales.

METHODS: An original methodology that utilises original data is used, which facilitates the calculation of the number of life years that have been saved as a result of the decline in the TB mortality rate, prevalence rate and quality of life burden.

RESULTS: The magnitude of the decline in the mortality and morbidity burden of TB is estimated at 104425 life years, which is valued to be worth in excess of US$127 billion. The value of improvements in morbidity contributes nearly as much as the more obvious gains for mortality.

CONCLUSION: Such significant results indicating the value of improvements in TB control have important implications for our understanding of these achievements and justify increased spending in developing countries that continue to be plagued by high rates of TB prevalence.”
“Purpose of reviewThis review will describe the clinical significance, pathogenesis and treatment of cystic fibrosis related bone disease (CFBD).Recent findingsCFBD continues to increase as the life expectancy of individuals with cystic fibrosis increases.

The value of these results is twofold First, we showed that the

The value of these results is twofold. First, we showed that the existence of partially susceptible individuals allows for the emerging virus to bypass resistance alleles that the virus has never encountered. Second, the concept of

QNZ NF-��B inhibitor resistance genes may only be valid for a well-defined viral genotype but not for polymorphic viral populations.”
“Study Design. A prospective case control study.

Objectives. To investigate the risk of a fall by using functional mobility tests in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) via a comparison with patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).

Summary of Background Data. LSS is a degenerative arthritic disease in the spine that results in decreasing function, impaired balance, and gait deficit, with increased levels of leg and back pain. This physical impairment may result in an increased risk of fall later in the disease process, as shown in KOA. However, there has been no study regarding the association between the risk of a fall and LSS.

Methods. The study was an age-and weight-matched case control study consisting of two

groups: one group consisting of 40 patients with LSS who were scheduled to undergo spine surgery (LSS group) and the other group consisting of 40 patients with advanced osteoarthritis in both knees, scheduled to undergo TKA on both knees (KOA group). For both groups, four functional mobility tests, such as a Six-Meter-Walk Test (SMT), Sit-to-Stand test (STS), Alternative-Step Test (AST), and Timed Up and Go Test JNK-IN-8 mouse (TUGT), were performed.

Results. There was no difference in demographic data between both groups except for body mass index. For the SMT and STS, the patients in the LSS group spent significantly more time performing these tests than the patients in the KOA. For the AST, however, patients

in the KOA group presented a statistically worse performance in functional mobility, compared with the LSS group. The mean TUGT time was not statistically different between the two groups.

Conclusions. The current study highlights that patients with symptomatic LSS 3-MA mouse have a risk of a fall comparable with the patients who had degenerative KOA based on the results of functional mobility tests (SMT, STS, AST, and TUGT).”
“Novel multiblock poly(arylene ether sulfone)s were prepared by a two-pot method from a phenoxide-end-capped fully disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomer and a fluoride-end-capped nonsulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomer with block length of 10 as the hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, respectively, and were subsequently used as starting materials to be treated with phosphorous pentoxide (P(2)O(5)) to get crosslinked membranes. The crosslinking reaction occurred between the sulfonic acid groups and activated ortho-hydrogen atoms to the ether linkage of the hydrophobic units in the presence of P(2)O(5) during solution casting.

For medically refractory partial epilepsy, resective surgical pro

For medically refractory partial epilepsy, resective surgical procedures Vorinostat Epigenetics inhibitor should be considered. If the patient is not a surgical candidate, the vagus nerve stimulator or ketogenic diet may improve seizure control in selected cases. Emerging therapies include medications with novel mechanisms of action, deep brain stimulators, and cortical stimulators that respond to neural patterns of seizure activity.”
“We report the case of a 15-month-old critically ill child with stimulus-induced diffuse voltage attenuation, a previously unreported electroencephalogram pattern. No clinical evidence of seizure activity was associated with these EEG changes.

The patient went on to have a full recovery. This case suggests that critically ill children have distinct stimulus induced electrographic patterns from those seen

in adults. Additional research is needed to define the significance of these patterns.”
“Background: The dissemination of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing challenge in medical care. Apart from hospital https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly3039478.html acquired MRSA, there has also been an increase in community acquired and livestock associated MRSA. While the risks of MRSA (e. g. wound infections) and consequences (e. g. rejection of patients) are well known, there are little data on the effectiveness of eradication procedures. Patients and methods: 32 patients with proven MRSA colonization were monitored during eradication for the following aspects: (1) localization of MRSA (swabs from hairline, anterior nares, throat, axillae, groins, perineum, and wounds, if present), (2) presence of eradication-impairing factors, (3) length of time needed for eradication, (4) cost of eradication, (5) molecular fingerprint and risk assessment (spa-types). Results: We describe the successful eradication of MRSA Fer-1 solubility dmso in all 32 patients. Most positive nasal swabs were obtained from the anterior nares and the throat

and only rarely from the hairline or axillae. The greater the number of positive swabs, the more time was needed for eradication. In most patients (37.5 %), eradication with topical antiseptics was successful. The average time for eradication was 12.97 (+/- 7.6) days. Twelve patients required systemic antibiotic therapy. Treatment costs associated with the use of systemic antibiotics were significantly higher. The most frequent spa types were t032 and t003. Conclusions: We report successful MRSA eradication in outpatients. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary in the majority of patients. A combined anti-MRSA strategy for inpatients and outpatients is recommended.”
“Many patients with epilepsy are on lifelong therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and AEDs are used for other conditions such as mood stabilization and headache prophylaxis.

Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarin

Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis.

Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.”
“The current and temperature dependent electrical transport is investigated in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3/YBa2Cu3O7 (PCMO/YBCO) heterostructures which are Epoxomicin fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. Two PCMO/YBCO heterostructures are made with the thicknesses of PCMO varied. It is shown that the superconducting transition temperature significantly decreases with increasing thickness of PCMO and with increasing applied current, which are related to the pair breaking via the polarized electrons. However, the current-dependent normal-state resistivity shows two crossing points, indicating the competition of various phases. According to our analysis, the melting of charge ordering state by the electrical current may be the major cause for the electrically driven enhancement of spin polarization in PCMO/YBCO. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3055269]“
“In this study,

PKC412 manufacturer we investigated the antinociceptive effect of 7-methoxyflavone (7MF) in mice using the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception and hotplate. 7MF (30, 50, 100 and 300mol/kg, i.p.) reduced the number of writhes, with ID50=82.5 +/- 11.7mol/kg and E-max=58.4%. 7MF treatment (100mol/kg, i.p.) inhibited paw-licking time in the neurogenic phase of the formalin pain response (65.6%) and did not decrease the nociceptive response in the inflammatory phase. In addition, Tariquidar clinical trial in glutamate-induced nociception, 7MF inhibited 26% of the nociceptive answer. On the other hand, 7MF did not increase the latency time of the animals in the hotplate test. These results suggest that 7MF has peripheral antinociceptive activity.”
“Chronic and chronically recurring diseases often cannot be treated causally and usually lead to a considerable impairment in social and occupational

participation. In order to deal appropriately with such restrictions, a more comprehensive therapeutic approach is required in the sense of a bio-psychosocial model of disease and health which serves as the basis for modern dermatological rehabilitation. Multimodal, quality-controlled dermatological rehabilitation gives patients with chronic skin diseases a treatment option that goes beyond the primarily symptom-oriented outpatient care provided by office-based physicians and the acute care of inpatient facilities. This paper presents the complex opportunities offered by dermatological rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to put dermatologists working in the practical field in a position to help their patients with chronic skin diseases to realize their statutory right to participate in society.

(C) RSNA, 2011″
“Background: Robotic catheter ablation aims

(C) RSNA, 2011″
“Background: Robotic catheter ablation aims to improve outcomes after ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) through improved lesion quality. This study examined electrogram attenuation as a measure of efficacy in response to robotic (ROB) and manual (MAN) ablation. Methods: Patients Adavosertib supplier with paroxysmal AF undergoing ablation as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial were studied (Clinical Trials Registration

NCT01037296). Patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation using NavX (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). Patients were randomized to MAN or ROB catheter ablation using a 3.5-mm irrigated-tip catheter with standardized ablation settings. Bipolar electrogram voltage was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 seconds after ablation onset. Distance from ablation lesion to the left atrial surface on NavX were calculated. Results: Similar ablation energy was delivered in ROB and MAN groups, achieving comparable rates of PV isolation (100% vs 98%). The bipolar voltages of 4,434 electrograms from 303 ablation lesions (146 ROB, 157 MAN) were measured. At 30 seconds, signal attenuation was greater

in the ROB group www.selleckchem.com/products/idasanutlin-rg-7388.html than MAN (mean 65 +/- 4% vs 55 +/- 4% of baseline voltage, P < 0.01). A total of 2,064 NavX ablation lesions were assessed (906 ROB and 1,158 MAN). ROB lesions were on average 0.52 mm further inside the geometry than MAN (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Robotic ablation results in greater signal attenuation in man. This is achieved despite manual lesions being closer to the left atrial surface. Catheter stability and constant energy delivery may be key to achieving signal attenuation, rather than increased contact force. (PACE 2012; 35:730738)”
“We present a rare case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism in a child. The exact pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis remains unclear. Thyroxine replacement therapy along with

steroids may lead to significant decrease in proteinuria and resolution of edema. Thyroid status should be evaluated in all cases with MPGN.”
“The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of second-generation embolic devices with Selleckchem Fedratinib that of platinum coils in experimental aneurysms.

Microsurgically constructed bifurcation aneurysms in rabbits were embolized with platinum coils (n = 7), HydroCoils 10 (n = 10), HydroSoft (n = 14) or Cerecyte (n = 6) devices. After 1 month, angiographic occlusion was scored and the aneurysms were histologically evaluated by light microscopy. Continuous and ordinal results were compared using ANOVA/Tukey-Kramer HSD and chi(2) tests respectively.

Angiographic occlusion at follow-up was increased in the HydroCoil and HydroSoft groups and decreased in the platinum coil and Cerecyte groups.