The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF

The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162-p3 variant with one V3 and one gp41 sequence change in gp160 that conferred both altered replicative fitness and resistance to PSC-RANTES was therefore surprising. We introduced the same two mutations into both the parental HIV-1(SF162) and the macaque-adapted SHIVSF162-p3 and found minor differences in entry fitness but no changes in sensitivity to inhibition by either PSC-RANTES or the small-molecule allosteric inhibitor learn more TAK-779. We attribute the earlier finding to confounding fitness effects with inhibitor sensitivity.”
“Endogenous opioid peptides (EOP) and dopamine

(DA)-derived salsolinol are implicated in the suckling-induced prolactin surge. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the opioidergic and salsolinergic activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus of nursing sheep. The sheep were infused intracerebroventricularly with

opioid receptors antagonists: naloxone (all types of receptors, n=6); naloxonazine (mu receptor, n=6) or the vehicle (control, n=6) in a series of five 30-min infusions (60 mu g/60 mu l) from 10:00 to 15:00, at 30-min intervals. The period of the experiment included the non-suckling (10:00-12:30) and suckling (12:30-15:00) periods. Simultaneously, a push pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence was performed in every sheep to study the dopaminergic system activity. Blood samples were also collected at 10-minute intervals to determine plasma prolactin concentration. Both CH5183284 the mean perfusate salsolinol and plasma prolactin concentrations were higher during the suckling vs. non-suckling

(P<0.001) period in the control. The perfusate DA concentration was below the detection limit in this group. Treatment with either naloxone or naloxonazine significantly (P<0.01) diminished plasma prolactin concentration, as compared with the controls and blocked the prolactin surge during suckling. In drug-infused sheep, the perfusate salsolinol concentration was below the detection limit but the increased DA and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were observed. In conclusion, the stimulatory action of EOP on prolactin Idasanutlin ic50 secretion in nursing females is mediated, at least in part, by salsolinol, and the ligands for mu opioid receptor may be the primary factors of this relationship, especially with respect to the suckling-induced prolactin surge. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Influenza A virus buds through the apical plasma membrane, forming enveloped virus particles that can take the shape of pleomorphic spheres or vastly elongated filaments. For either type of virion, the factors responsible for separation of viral and cell membranes are not known.

Here, we examined, using fMRI, activation differences on a visual

Here, we examined, using fMRI, activation differences on a visual task wherein feature grouping was a precursor to the formation

of distinct groups in the service of target location and identification.

Method: Fourteen schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls completed a target detection task with 2 conditions: one in which target-distractor grouping facilitates detection (the Isolated condition) and one in which it hinders detection (the Embedded condition). Stimuli were blocked by condition. Accuracy and RT data were obtained in addition to fMRI data.

Results: Patients and controls did not differ significantly in accuracy or RI in either condition. Within this context, controls demonstrated greater recruitment LY2109761 mw of brain regions involved in visual-spatial processing, and the groups differed in activity in areas known to support visual search, visual

analysis, decision making and response generation.

Conclusion: These findings are consistent with past data indicating reduced processing of stimulus organization, and the subsequent use of inefficient visual search strategies, even under conditions when behavioral performance is at a high level and matches that of healthy controls. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights www.selleckchem.com/products/Erlotinib-Hydrochloride.html reserved.”
“Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are associated with respiratory, ocular and gastrointestinal infections as well as potentially fatal disseminated disease in highly immunocompromised

patients. Although there is no specific FDA approved treatment for HAdV infections, some antivirals are used in certain patients. The in vitro antiviral assays for HAdV are not standardized and are usually time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate a real time PCR assay for rapid determination of susceptibility of HAdV to antiviral drugs. The nucleoside analogue stavudine (d4T) was used as GW4064 purchase test drug in A549 cells infected with HAdV5. The antiviral assay measured the reduction of the HAdV DNA levels in culture supernatants by real time PCR using specific primers that amplify a conserved region of the hexon gene. This real time PCR assay demonstrated that stavudine was a selective inhibitor for HAdV5, since the effective concentration 50% (EC(50)) ranged from 0.08 to 0.12 mM at multiplicity of infection between 0.001 and I. Furthermore, EC(50) showed a high correlation with plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays (r(2) = 0.9938 and r(2) = 0.9468, respectively). In conclusion, the real time PCR-based antiviral assay is rapid, reproducible and could replace classical and more labor-intensive infectivity assays. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing.

Results: Standard urinary

Results: Standard urinary Rigosertib clinical trial flow rates were established in the 13 to 15-year-old control group and represented on a nomogram. In the boys who underwent hypospadias surgery the urine flow rates were significantly lower compared to the control nomogram (p <0.0001), with half the patients having uroflow rates below 1 SD from the control mean but without symptoms. Boys with significant preoperative chordee were more likely to have poorer urinary flow (p <0.04). A poor urinary flow rate also was significantly

associated with post-void residual bladder volume (p <0.03). There was no correlation with original meatal location, number of operations, presence of postoperative complications, current anatomy and lower urinary tract symptoms (eg post-void dribble, hesitancy, incontinence).

Conclusions: At long-term followup after hypospadias surgery urinary flow rates were significantly lower compared to age matched controls but still fell within the normal range. In the hypospadias cohort there was no significant association with lower urinary tract symptoms and poor urinary

flow. Detection of poor urinary flow may indicate incomplete Selleckchem Milciclib bladder emptying. The presence of severe chordee preoperatively is a significant risk factor for poor urinary flow rates on long-term followup.”
“Diverse pathological changes occur in the white matter (WM) of patients with schizophrenia. Various microstructural alterations including a reduction in axonal number or diameter, reduced myelination, or poor coherence of fibers could account for these changes. Abnormal integrity of macromolecules such as myelin (‘dysmyelination’) can be studied by applying multiple modalities of WM imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) in parallel. Using ultra-high field

(7 Tesla) MTI in 17 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls, we evaluated the voxelwise distribution of macromolecular WM abnormalities. Patients had a significant reduction in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in WM adjacent to visual processing regions and inferior temporal cortex (Cohen’s d = 1.54). Pifithrin-�� supplier Among the regions showing MTR reduction, a concurrent reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) occurs proximal to the lingual gyrus. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the degree of FA reduction in the putatively ‘dysmyelinated’ regions in patients predicted impaired processing speed (PS; beta = 0.74; P = 0.003), a core cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In controls, MTR/FA in the occipito-temporal regions were not associated with PS. Our findings suggest that dysmyelination in visual processing regions is present in patients with schizophrenia with greatest cognitive and functional impairment. Combined DTI/MTI deficits in the occipito-temporal region may be an important variable when considering potential treatment targets for improving cognitive function in schizophrenia.

26, p<0 06), and renalase (r=0 34, p<0 05) In multiple reg

26, p<0.06), and renalase (r=0.34, p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis VAP-1 was predicted 80% by serum creatinine (beta value 0.33, p=0.01), and CD146 (beta value 43, p=0.0005). Conclusion: VAP-1, elevated in kidney transplant recipients, is predominantly dependent on endothelial damage and kidney function, which deteriorated with time after kidney transplantation. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Macrophages and dendritic cells (Des) are at the front line of defence against fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Together with physical barriers, such as mucus and a range of antimicrobial compounds, they constitute a major part of the intrinsic and innate MEK162 immune

systems. They have elaborate features, including pat-tern recognition receptors (PRRs) and specialized end ocytic mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines,

Cediranib nmr and the ability to call on reserves. As masters of manipulation and counterattack, viruses shunt intrinsic and innate recognition, enter immune cells, and spread from these cells throughout an organism. Here, we review mechanisms by which viruses subvert endocytic and pathogen-sensing functions of macrophages and DCs, while highlighting possible strategic advantages of infecting cells normally tuned into pathogen destruction.”
“The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway is thought to be involved in neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, we examined the involvement of beta-adrenoceptor signaling on the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells LDC000067 clinical trial into neural progenitor cells. Mouse iPS cells were cultured on ultra-low-attachment dishes to induce embryoid body (EB) formation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 1 mu M) and/or the beta-adrenoceptor agonist L-isoproterenol (0.3 or 1 mu M) were added to the EB cultures for 4 days, then EBs were plated on gelatin-coated plates and cultured for 7 or 14 days. Subtype-specific antibody staining revealed that mouse iPS cells express beta(1)-adrenoceptors predominantly. Although treatment with L-isoproterenol alone did not affect the

expression of Nestin (a specific marker for neural progenitor cells), L-isoproterenol significantly enhanced ATRA-induced Nestin expression. Pretreatment of EBs with either atenolol (a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist) or H89 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) significantly inhibited the L-isoproterenol-enhancement of ATRA-induced Nestin expression. In addition, the L-isoproterenol treatment significantly enhanced ATRA-induced expression of NeuN (a neuron-specific nuclear protein). These findings suggest that beta(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation enhances ATRA-induced neural differentiation of mouse iPS cells. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are expressed in brain regions implicated in the rewarding effects of natural stimuli and drugs of abuse.

Moreover, CSH is a dynamic parameter which can change during cult

Moreover, CSH is a dynamic parameter which can change during cultivation of microorganisms.”
“We previously reported a novelty P3 reduction in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (n = 20 per group) in a novelty oddball task using a 31-channel

montage. In an independent replication and extension using a 67-channel montage (n = 49 per group), reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms were simplified and quantified by a temporal, covariance-based principal components analysis (PCA) (unrestricted Varimax rotation), yielding factor solutions consistent with other oddball tasks. A factor with a loadings peak at 343 ms summarized the target P3b source as well as a secondary midline frontocentral source for novels and targets. An earlier novelty vertex source (NVS) at 241 ms

PU-H71 ic50 was present for novels, but not targets, and was reduced Selleckchem SHP099 in patients. Compatible CSD-PCA findings were also confirmed for the original low-density sample. Results are consistent with a reduced novelty response in clinical depression, involving the early phase of the frontocentral novelty P3.”
“Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is used widely as an expression host for various gene products. We have explored cellular effects caused by the expression of a mutant form of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), the major secreted protein of T. reesei using biochemical and transcriptomic analyses and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mutated CBHI was tagged fluorescently with Venus to establish the subcellular location of the fusion protein and its potential association with the proteasome, an organelle assigned for the disposal of misfolded proteins. Expression of the mutant CBHI in the high protein-secreting host Rut-C30 caused physiological changes in the fungal hyphae, affected

protein secretion THZ1 and elicited ER stress. A massive upregulation of UPR- and ERAD-related genes sec61, der1, uba1, bip1, pdi1, prp1, cxl1 and lhs1 was observed by qRT-PCR in the CBHI Delta 4-Venus strain with four mutations introduced in the DNA encoding the core domain of CBHI. Further stress was applied to this strain by inhibiting function of the proteasome with MG132 (N-benzoylcarbonyl(Cbz)-Leu-Leu-leucinal). The effect of MG132 was found to be specific to the proteasome-associated genes. There are no earlier reports on the effect of proteasome inhibition on protein quality control in filamentous fungi. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies suggested that the mutant CBHI accumulated in the ER and colocalized with the fungal proteasome. These results provide an indication that there is a limit to how far T. reesei Rut-C30, already under secretion stress, can be pressed to produce higher protein yields.

In summary, we have developed an in vitro

model of BIPN t

In summary, we have developed an in vitro

model of BIPN that recapitulates the clinical sensory axonopathy; this model demonstrates that bortezomib induces an alteration in microtubules and axonal transport. This robust model will be used in future mechanistic studies of BIPN and its prevention. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Water stress restrains plant growth. buy CP673451 Expansin is a cell wall protein that is generally accepted to be the key regulator of cell wall extension during plant growth. In this study, we used two different wheat cultivars to study the involvement of expansin in drought tolerance. Wheat coleoptile was used as the material in experiment. Our results indicated that water stress induced an increase in acidic pH-dependant cell wall extension, which is related to expansin activity; however, water stress inhibited coleoptile elongation growth. The increased expansin activity was mainly due to increased expression of expansin protein that was upregulated by water stress, but water stress also resulted in a decrease in cell wall acidity, a negative factor for cell wall extension. Decreased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity

was involved in the alkalinization of the cell wall under water stress. The activity of expansin EGFR inhibitor in HF9703 (a drought-tolerant wheat cultivar) was always higher than that in 921842 (a drought-sensitive wheat cultivar) under both normal and water stress conditions, which ��-Nicotinamide price may be correlated with the higher expansin protein expression and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity observed in HF9703 versus 921842. However, water stress did not change the susceptibility of the wheat cell wall to expansin, and no difference in this susceptibility was observed between the drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive wheat cultivars. These results suggest the involvement of expansin in cell elongation and the drought resistance of wheat.”
“Objective: To understand how teaching behaviors contribute

to simulation-based learning, we used a 7-category educational framework to assess the teaching behaviors used in basic skills training.

Methods: Twenty-four first-year cardiothoracic surgery residents and 20 faculty participated in the Boot Camp vessel anastomosis sessions. A portable chest model with synthetic graft and target vessels and a tissue-based porcine model simulated coronary artery anastomosis. After each 2-hour session on days 1 and 2, residents assessed teaching behaviors of faculty using a 20-item questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale. After session on day 1, faculty completed a self-assessment questionnaire. At 3 months, faculty completed self-assessment questionnaires regarding teaching behaviors in simulation and clinical settings.

The methodology developed for the DMD gene

can be general

The methodology developed for the DMD gene

can be generalized and used for other databases dedicated to genetic diseases. Application of this model of phenotypic analysis for each patient and further development of the database should contribute substantially to clinical research providing useful tools for future clinical trials. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive muscle lysosomal glycogenosis, characterised by limb-girdle muscle weakness and frequent respiratory involvement. The French Pompe registry was created in 2004 with the initial aim of studying the natural history of French patients with adult Pompe disease. Since selleck compound the marketing in 2006 of enzyme replacement therapy (alglucosidase alfa, Myozyme (R)), the French Pompe registry has also been used to prospectively gather the biological and clinical follow-up data of all adult patients currently treated in France. This report describes the main clinical and molecular features, at the time of inclusion in the French registry,

of 126 patients followed up in 21 hospital-based neuromuscular or metabolic centres. Sixty-five men and 61 women have been included in the registry. Median age at inclusion was 49 years, and the median age at onset of progressive limb weakness was 35 years. Fifty-five percent of the patients were walking without assistance, 24% were using a stick or a walking AZD4547 datasheet frame, and 21% were using a wheelchair. Forty-six percent of the patients needed ventilatory assistance, which was non-invasive in 35% of the cases. When performed, muscle biopsies showed specific features phosphatase inhibitor of Pompe disease in less than two-thirds of the cases, confirming the importance of acid

alpha-glucosidase enzymatic assessment to establish the diagnosis. Molecular analysis detected the common c.-32-13T > G mutation, in at least one allele, in 90% of patients. The French Pompe registry is so far the largest country-based prospective study of patients with Pompe disease, and further analysis will be performed to study the impact of enzyme replacement therapy on the progression of the disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (AR-CMT) is often characterized by onset in early childhood and severe phenotype compared to the dominant forms. CMT disease associated with periaxin gene (PRX) is rare and characterized by demyelination limited to the major peripheral nerves. Following the discovery of a high frequency of a specific periaxin gene mutation (E1085fsX4 homozygote) in the Reunion Island, we examined all French patients known as carriers of the periaxin gene mutation. There were 24 patients. Eighteen were from the Reunion Island (6 families and 10 sporadic cases). The six remaining patients were in two families, each with two affected individuals, and two sporadic cases. The series included 17 female and seven male patients.

1 x 10(5); P = 0 005) and advanced disease status (blasts <5%

1 x 10(5); P = 0.005) and advanced disease status (blasts <5% at time of UCBT, P = 0.016). A 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher after MAC (62 vs 34%; P = 0.009). A 2-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30 and 34%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients with high-risk disease (blasts >5% and International Prognostic scoring system (IPSS) intermediate-2 or high in MDS) had significant poorer DFS (hazard ratio (HR): 1.76; P = 0.047). In spite

of high NRM, these data indicate that UCBT is an acceptable alternative option to treat adults with high-risk MDS or sAML, without a suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched Capmatinib datasheet donor. Leukemia (2011) 25, 75-81; doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.219; published online 30 September 2010″
“We have

previously identified sole +9, 13q- or 20q-, as ‘favorable’ and sole +8 or complex karyotype selleck inhibitor as ‘unfavorable’ cytogenetic abnormalities in primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In this study of 433 PMF patients, we describe additional sole abnormalities with favorable (chromosome 1 translocations/duplications) or unfavorable (-7/7q-) prognosis and also show that other sole or two abnormalities that do not include i(17q), -5/5q-, 12p-, inv(3) or 11q23 rearrangement are prognostically aligned with normal karyotype, which is prognostically favorable. These findings were incorporated into a refined two-tired cytogenetic-risk stratification: unfavorable and favorable karyotype. The respective 5-year survival rates were

8 and 51% (hazard ratio (HR): 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2-4.3; P<0.0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)-independent prognostic value of cytogenetic-risk categorization and also identified thrombocytopenia (platelets <100 x 10(9)/l) as another independent predictor of inferior survival (P<0.0001). A similar multi-variable analysis showed that karyotype (P = 0.001) and platelet count (P = 0.04), but not IPSS (P = 0.27), predicted leukemia-free survival; the 5-year leukemic transformation rates for unfavorable versus favorable karyotype were 46 and 7% (HR: 5.5, 95% CI: 2.5-12.0; P<0.0001). This study provides the rationale and necessary details for incorporating cytogenetic MM-102 mw findings and platelet count in future prognostic models for PMF. Leukemia (2011) 25, 82-88; doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.234; published online 14 October 2010″
“The pharmacological induction of apoptosis in neoplastic B cells presents a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We profiled a panel of clinical multi-kinase inhibitors for their ability to induce apoptosis in primary CLL cells. Whereas inhibitors targeting a large number of receptor and intracellular tyrosine kinases including c-KIT, FLT3, BTK and SYK were comparatively inactive, the CDK inhibitors BMS-387032 and flavopiridol showed marked efficacy similar to staurosporine.

This novel assay

is specific and sensitive for detection

This novel assay

is specific and sensitive for detection of SINV and can be used for example for screening SINV in wildlife. However, molecular diagnostic techniques using serum samples seem to be of limited value for the diagnosis of human SINV infection due to the short and low viraemia of infection with SINV. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The discriminative stimulus properties of the atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) clozapine (CLZ) have recently been studied in C57BL/6 mice, a common background strain for genetic alterations. However, further evaluation is needed to fully characterize CLZ’s discriminative cue in this strain find more of mice.

The objectives of the study were to confirm the previous findings using a shorter pretreatment time and to further characterize

the receptor mechanisms mediating the discriminative E7080 stimulus properties of CLZ by testing APDs, selective ligands, and N-desmethylclozapine (CLZ’s major metabolite) in C57BL/6 mice.

C57BL/6 male mice were trained to discriminate 2.5 mg/kg CLZ (s.c.) from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task.

Generalization testing with CLZ yielded an ED50 = 1.19 mg/kg. Substitution testing with APDs showed that the atypical APDs quetiapine, sertindole, zotepine, iloperidone, and melperone fully substituted for CLZ (a parts per thousand yen80% CLZ-appropriate responding), but aripiprazole did not. The typical APDs chlorpromazine and thioridazine substituted for CLZ (fluphenazine and perphenazine did not). The serotonin (5-HT) (2A) antagonist M100907 and the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin fully substituted for CLZ. The H-1 histaminergic antagonist pyrilamine, dopamine agonist amphetamine,

and the selective serotonin TPCA-1 chemical structure reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine did not substitute for CLZ. While N-desmethylclozapine did not substitute for CLZ when tested alone, N-desmethylclozapine plus a low dose of CLZ combined in an additive manner produced full substitution.

CLZ’s discriminative cue in C57BL/6 mice is a “”compound”" cue mediated in part by antagonism of 5-HT2A and alpha(1) receptors.”
“The mechanisms of speciation have been one of the most debated topics in evolutionary biology. Among all reproductive barriers, postzygotic reproductive isolation is perhaps the one that has attracted the most attention from geneticists. Despite remarkable advances in the identification of loci involved in Drosophila speciation, little is known about the genes, functions, and biochemical interactions of the molecules underlying hybrid sterility and inviability in mammals.

Here, we report that after status epilepticus induced by soman ad

Here, we report that after status epilepticus induced by soman administration to rats, neuronal degeneration as assessed by Fluoro-Jade C staining was more extensive in the ventral than the dorsal hippocampal subfields, 1 day after soman exposure. Seven days later, the difference between dorsal and ventral regions was not statistically significant. In the amygdala, soman-induced neurodegeneration Evofosfamide cell line was more severe in the posteroventral regions of the lateral, basolateral, and medial nuclei compared to the anterodorsal regions of these nuclei. In

contrast, the basomedial nucleus was more severely affected in the anterodorsal region. The extent of neurodegeneration in the amygdala was not significantly different from that in the ventral hippocampus. However, when compared with the whole hippocampus, the amygdala displayed more severe neurodegeneration, on both day 1 and day 7 after soman exposure. Testing the protective efficacy of drugs against nerve agent-induced brain damage should include examination of the ventral hippocampus and the posteroventral regions of the amygdala, as these areas are most vulnerable to nerve agent-induced neurodegeneration.

Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Aims:

To demonstrate the suitability of yeast to act as a novel biotechnological platform for conducting in vivo inhibition assays using drugs with low efficacies towards their mycobacterial targets, such as occurs in the situation with triclosan and InhA.

Methods TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor and Results:

A surrogate yeast host represented by Saccharomyces P5091 cerevisiae etr1 Delta cells lacking Etr1p, the 2-trans-enoyl-thioester

reductase of mitochondrial type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII), was designed to rely on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FASII enzyme InhA. Although InhA is 10 000 times less sensitive to the antimicrobial drug triclosan than is bacterial FabI, the respiratory growth of yeast cells depending on InhA was severely affected on glycerol medium containing triclosan.

Conclusions:

The yeast system could detect enzyme inhibition despite the use of a drug with only low efficacy.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

Tuberculosis affects a third of the human population, and InhA is a major drug target for combating this disease. InhA is inhibited by isoniazid, but triclosan-derived compounds are presently being developed as antimycolates. A demonstration of triclosan inhibition of InhA in yeast represents a meaningful variation in studying this effect in mycobacteria, because it occurred without the potentially confusing aspects of perturbing protein-protein interactions which are presumed vital to mycobacterial FASII, inactivating other important enzymes or eliciting a dedicated transcriptional response in Myco. tuberculosis.