In this way, it is important to confirm whether the OMV obtained in production process satisfy the criteria of constitution and protein pattern and thereby their suitability as antigen for vaccine elaboration. Satisfying these criteria, the images obtained of all the series investigated, the contour, tubular and spherical shapes, which were cited formerly by Devoe and Gilchrist , and the vesicles integrity were confirmed (Fig. 4). The highest values of the maximum concentration of OMV, ProdP, YP/X, and β were obtained
in the experiments where the original Catlin medium without iron supplementation was formulated with double initial concentrations of lactate and amino acids and the original glycerol concentration maintained. The results indicated that lactate is the main source of carbon and the growth limiting factor. Results of amino acids analysis suggested that CP-673451 the original Catlin medium composition must be reformulated in order to enhance antigen production from N. meningitidis B cultivations. In all the experiments, glycerol was not consumed and could protect selleck compound mechanically the released OMV. Further, the antigen (OMV) concentration in cultivation increased significantly during the stationary growth phase. In all the experiments,
vesicle integrity was verified and the OMV released contained IRP. Thus, the OMV obtained satisfy the constitution and protein pattern criteria and are suitable for vaccine production. The cultivation medium composition, the effect of residual iron on growth and OMV production will be studied in future experiments. Financial support from Fundação Butantan, CAPES, CNPq and FAPESP are gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to
thank Mr. Lourivaldo Inácio de Souza, Mr. Máximo de Moraes, Mr. Hélio Fernandes Chagas, Mrs. Inês do Amaral Maurelli, Mrs. Salete Vargas, and Mrs. Fátima Aparecida Mendonça de Oliveira for their technical support. “
“Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is present in more than 90% of all human adults and establishes lifelong latency in B cells in the human host after primary infection . When immune control is suppressed the virus can be reactivated as for example in transplanted individuals Rutecarpine . Latent EBV infection in B lymphocytes is likely to be a risk factor for B-cell lymphomas in conditions of combined antigen stimulation and immunosuppression, e.g. in holoendemic malaria, after transplantation, and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 induced immunodeficiency . Before the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy, the risk of developing B-cell lymphomas in HIV-1 seropositive patients was several thousand fold higher than in HIV-1 sero-negative persons of the same age group . Thirty–forty percent of the peripheral lymphomas and close to 100% of the primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas were EBV-positive .