In this way, it is important to confirm whether the OMV obtained

In this way, it is important to confirm whether the OMV obtained in production process satisfy the criteria of constitution and protein pattern and thereby their suitability as antigen for vaccine elaboration. Satisfying these criteria, the images obtained of all the series investigated, the contour, tubular and spherical shapes, which were cited formerly by Devoe and Gilchrist [30], and the vesicles integrity were confirmed (Fig. 4). The highest values of the maximum concentration of OMV, ProdP, YP/X, and β were obtained

in the experiments where the original Catlin medium without iron supplementation was formulated with double initial concentrations of lactate and amino acids and the original glycerol concentration maintained. The results indicated that lactate is the main source of carbon and the growth limiting factor. Results of amino acids analysis suggested that CP-673451 the original Catlin medium composition must be reformulated in order to enhance antigen production from N. meningitidis B cultivations. In all the experiments, glycerol was not consumed and could protect selleck compound mechanically the released OMV. Further, the antigen (OMV) concentration in cultivation increased significantly during the stationary growth phase. In all the experiments,

vesicle integrity was verified and the OMV released contained IRP. Thus, the OMV obtained satisfy the constitution and protein pattern criteria and are suitable for vaccine production. The cultivation medium composition, the effect of residual iron on growth and OMV production will be studied in future experiments. Financial support from Fundação Butantan, CAPES, CNPq and FAPESP are gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to

thank Mr. Lourivaldo Inácio de Souza, Mr. Máximo de Moraes, Mr. Hélio Fernandes Chagas, Mrs. Inês do Amaral Maurelli, Mrs. Salete Vargas, and Mrs. Fátima Aparecida Mendonça de Oliveira for their technical support. “
“Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is present in more than 90% of all human adults and establishes lifelong latency in B cells in the human host after primary infection [1]. When immune control is suppressed the virus can be reactivated as for example in transplanted individuals Rutecarpine [2]. Latent EBV infection in B lymphocytes is likely to be a risk factor for B-cell lymphomas in conditions of combined antigen stimulation and immunosuppression, e.g. in holoendemic malaria, after transplantation, and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 induced immunodeficiency [3]. Before the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy, the risk of developing B-cell lymphomas in HIV-1 seropositive patients was several thousand fold higher than in HIV-1 sero-negative persons of the same age group [4]. Thirty–forty percent of the peripheral lymphomas and close to 100% of the primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas were EBV-positive [5].

In contrast, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have shown no e

In contrast, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have shown no effect on pneumococcal carriage [20], [21], [22], [23] and [24]. Most studies evaluating the impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization in the absence of additional PCV-7 in infants or children have not shown any impact on pneumococcal disease or carriage [25], [26] and [27] Data from Fiji shows that the 7 serotypes included in PCV-7, plus the cross reactive serotype 6A, would potentially cover 63.3% of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases in children under 5 years [28]. This coverage would potentially increase to 83% if the PPV-23 was used, and would increase to 87% if the new 13-valent pneumococcal

click here conjugate vaccine produced by Wyeth Vaccines (which includes serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A) was used, largely due to the inclusion of 6A which is not included in the PPV-23 [28]. The aim of this study was to find an optimal vaccination strategy suitable for resource poor countries in terms of serotype coverage, flexibility, and affordability. To address these issues, we undertook a Phase II vaccine trial in Fiji to document the safety, Selleck Staurosporine immunogenicity and impact on pneumococcal carriage of various pneumococcal vaccination regimens combining 1, 2, or 3 doses of PCV-7 in infancy. In order to broaden the serotype coverage, the additional benefit of a PPV-23 booster at 12 months of age was also assessed. Presented

are the geometric mean serotype-specific IgG antibody concentrations (GMC) prior to and 2 weeks following the 12 month PPV-23, and at 17 months of age. The study was these a single blind, open-label randomized Phase II vaccine trial undertaken in Suva, the capital of Fiji. Healthy infants aged between six and eight weeks were eligible for enrolment. Details of the selection criteria and the randomization procedure have been reported elsewhere [29] The study was conducted and monitored according to Good Clinical Practice. It was approved by the Fiji National Research Ethics Review Committee and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee Infants were stratified by ethnicity and randomized into one of eight groups. The seven-valent CRM197 protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharide antigen from pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F (Prevenar™, Wyeth Vaccines) was used. The vaccine contains 2 μg of each serotype, except serotype 6B which contains 4 μg. The three dose group received PCV-7 at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, the 2 dose group received PCV-7 at 6 and 14 weeks of age and the single dose group received PCV-7 at 14 weeks of age. Routine vaccines (Hiberix™ mixed with Tritanrix™–HepB™, GlaxoSmithKline) and oral polio were given with the primary series.

However, gonorrhea prevention is being threatened by the increasi

However, gonorrhea prevention is being threatened by the increasing prevalence of organisms with resistance to cephalosporins, the only class of first-line drugs recommended to treat gonorrhea [77] and [79]. Given that 106 million cases

of gonorrhea occur each year [9], millions could be left at risk of developing gonorrhea-associated PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pregnancy-related complications, and enhancement of HIV transmission. Rapid development and evaluation of new antibiotics for the treatment of gonorrhea are critical, and two clinical trials of new regimens are ongoing [78]. However, N. gonorrhoeae has successively acquired resistance to four different classes of antibiotics since it was first treatable in the 1940s [78], and the Afatinib purchase rate of development GSK1349572 molecular weight of resistance appears to be increasing. While efforts are made to find new effective drug regimens for gonorrhea, to improve diagnostic capacity for gonorrhea in low-income settings, and to scale-up existing case management strategies, progress toward a gonorrhea vaccine is also urgently needed [103]. More cases of trichomoniasis are estimated to occur each year than gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis cases combined

[9]. Genital symptoms, especially vaginal discharge and irritation, may have important adverse effects on quality of life. Trichomoniasis is also associated with more serious consequences, including preterm delivery among pregnant women and enhancement of HIV transmission. A lack of available diagnostic tests hampers control efforts globally, but especially

in low-income countries. Although not yet at the same level of urgency as for gonorrhea, reports of low-level trichomonal antimicrobial resistance are worrisome, as just one drug class treats trichomoniasis [65]. Additional drug regimens and diagnostic tests for trichomoniasis should be second pursued, while continued work is done toward developing trichomoniasis vaccines [104]. Among the curable STIs, syphilis has the lowest global incidence but accounts for the greatest number of DALYs lost [58], primarily related to the devastating consequences of mother-to-child transmission [28]. More than half a million adverse outcomes of syphilis in pregnancy are estimated to occur each year [28]. Congenital syphilis has been virtually eliminated as a public health problem in most high-income countries [69] and [70]. However, only about 30% of infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa receive syphilis testing and treatment [28] and [87]. New point-of-care diagnostic tests, cheap curative treatment with one dose of penicillin, and an antenatal platform to access infected pregnant women may now make it feasible to prevent a substantial proportion of congenital syphilis outcomes [64] and [105], and WHO has launched an initiative to eliminate congenital syphilis as a global public health problem [64].

However, cases of meningococcal serogroup C disease continued to

However, cases of meningococcal serogroup C disease continued to occur among persons who were eligible for vaccination, prompting an investigation of vaccine effectiveness. The results of this study identified no confirmed cases of meningococcal serogroup C disease in vaccinated or partially vaccinated individuals through December 2011, consistent with the high effectiveness of

MenC conjugate vaccines observed in the United Kingdom, Quebec, Spain and other settings [10], [15], [16] and [17]. Reasons for non-vaccination see more among case patients who were eligible to receive MenC vaccine need to be investigated to inform future vaccination strategies. Offering MenC vaccine over an extended period of time might have helped achieve coverage targets; national vaccination campaigns against influenza A(H1N1) and rubella in Brazil achieved coverage targets among persons 20–29 years old by providing multiple opportunities for vaccination

over an extended period [18] and [19]. The increase in serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil, was characterized by elevated attack rates among adolescents and young adults, as well as young children, ABT 888 with high case-fatality, similar to patterns of epidemic meningococcal disease described in other settings [10], [15] and [16]. Data from surveillance for meningococcal disease, especially the availability of population-based data to compare disease incidence by age group in the city of Salvador [7], helped prioritize limited vaccine supplies. The increase of meningococcal serogroup C disease in Salvador followed a shift from predominance of

serogroup B to serogroup C first described in São Paulo in southeast Brazil [3], and spreading throughout the country [4]. While the emergence of a virulent serogroup C clone belonging to sequence type 103 complex may have contributed to epidemics in Brazil, steadily increasing incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease has been reported from the greater São GPX6 Paulo metropolitan area since the late 1980s [3]. Further, meningococcal epidemics may occur due to a variety of factors; shifts of predominant serogroup have been identified in other settings in Brazil without occurrence of epidemics [20]. For example, serogroup C meningococci belonging to the sequence type 103 complex have been identified in Salvador since 1996 (J. Reis, unpublished data). This clone has been associated with epidemics of meningococcal disease in Europe and other regions since 2000 [3] and [21]. Natural cycles in meningococcal disease complicate efforts to document short-term impact of vaccination. Continuous surveillance in Brazil for meningococcal disease and strain characterization is needed to establish a baseline for vaccine impact assessments. This study is subject to a number of limitations.

5 μCi/well of [methyl-3H] thymidine (1 Ci/mmol; China Institute o

5 μCi/well of [methyl-3H] thymidine (1 Ci/mmol; China Institute of Atomic Energy, China) for the last 16 hrs of cultivation. The cultured cells were collected and put on the glass fiber membrane for dry at 70 °C in the oven. The radioactivity was counted by a liquid scintillation counter (Beckman Coulter, USA). [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation was calculated in cpm. Stimulatory index: Cpm of experimental 1 well − cpm of blank control well/cmp of blank control well. Level of total IgA in the supernatant of homogenized small

intestine was analyzed using sIgA radioimmunoassay kit (China Institute of Atomic Energy, China) according manufacture’s instruction. M. tuberculosis H37Rv challenge was referred to [18] with slightly modifications. Briefly, BALB/c mice were orally administrated three times at 2-week intervals either with saline control, pcDNA3.1 Cyclopamine or pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A DNA encapsulated by liposome. Mice were then rested for 6 weeks after the third DNA immunization and challenged

intravenously in a lateral tail vein with 106 CFU of M. tuberculosis H37Rv grown as a surface pellicle for 2 weeks on synthetic Sauton medium and stored as a stock solution at −70 °C in glycerol. 3 weeks after challenge, mice were sacrificed, lung homogenate dilutions were plated on 7H11 Middlebrook Trametinib clinical trial agar supplemented with albumin-oleic acid-dextrose-catalase-enrichment broth (Difco, Detroit, MI). Petri dishes were incubated for 4 weeks in sealed plastic bags at 37 °C, and colonies were counted

visually. For statistical analysis (Student’s t test), data obtained from two or three dilutions were used to calculate the mean log10 CFU values per lung. Data are expressed as mean log10 values per experimental group (each consisting of 5 mice). Statistical analysis (SPSS 11.0) of the microscopic significance was applied to evaluate the excitation intensity of fluorescence between experimental and control areas. Initially, we try to investigate efficacy of delivery system of liposomal-pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A DNA to intestinal tract. C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated 3 times at 2-week intervals nearly with either saline, pcDNA3.1 or pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A DNA encapsulated in liposome. Expression of Ag85A antigen in the epithelium of small intestine was examined after final immunization by immunohistochemistry method. As shown in Fig. 1, Ag85A protein was intensively expressed in Peyer’s patches (Fig. 1 A-c, black arrows) and epithelium (Fig. 1, black and white arrows) of the small intestine. In contrast, no positive staining cells in Peyer’s patches (Fig. 1A (a and b)) and epithelium (Fig. 1A (d and e)) were found in those of two control mice. The quantitatively calculated density of positive staining cells in Peyer’s patches (Fig. 1B (c)) and epithelium (Fig. 1B (f1 and f2)) were also significantly higher as compared to those in normal control mice and plasmid control mice. These results indicated that the pcDNA3.

The dose and intensity of exercise each participant completes in

The dose and intensity of exercise each participant completes in a set time can vary significantly. In addition, measurement of total time spent in therapy may not take into account rests and other interruptions to therapy sessions. In

fact, an observational study of activity levels in rehabilitation found that rehabilitation participants complete relevant activities only 45% of the time they are in a therapy area (Mackey et al 1996). This suggests that studies using time as a measure of exercise dosage may be overestimating actual exercise substantially. A count of each repetition of exercise the participant completes may be a more accurate measure of exercise dosage. This would capture the Trichostatin A work the participant completes and not any accessory activities nor resting time. Several published studies have used repetitions to measure dosage (Lang et al 2009, Lang et al 2007, Nugent et al 1994). These studies have used either a therapist or an external observer

to record repetitions of exercise. External observation is a labour-intensive process that would be impractical for studies with large cohorts or for daily clinical practice. An alternative strategy is for rehabilitation participants to count their own exercise repetitions while completing their prescribed exercise. This method has been implemented in several rehabilitation units including NVP-BGJ398 Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital in Sydney, Australia. It is usual clinical practice at Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital for rehabilitation patients to count their own exercise repetitions with a hand-held tally counter if they are able to do this. These exercise totals are recorded and used for clinical decision-making and documentation.

The aim of this study was to determine if rehabilitation participants assessed by their therapist as being able to count their repetitions of exercise accurately (based on a short period of observation) are able to count exercise repetitions accurately when observed more closely over a longer period of time. The validity of exercise dose quantification by therapist-selected rehabilitation participants was determined by Bay 11-7085 comparing the number of exercise repetitions counted by participants to the number counted by an external observer. Therefore, the research question for this study was: Can therapist-identified rehabilitation participants accurately quantify their exercise dosage during inpatient rehabilitation? An observational study was conducted involving people admitted to inpatient rehabilitation at Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Sydney during the six-week study period beginning in November 2009. Participants were included from two rehabilitation units: aged care rehabilitation and stroke/neurological rehabilitation. We sought to observe 20 participants from each unit who were deemed likely to be able to count exercise repetitions accurately while they exercised.

We report two clinical evaluations which aimed at improving adjuv

We report two clinical evaluations which aimed at improving adjuvanted RTS,S by combining it with the recombinant thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP) of P. falciparum, PfTRAP [24]. PfTRAP is one of several adhesive proteins [25] naturally expressed in sporozoite [26] and hepatic stages [27].

The candidacy of PfTRAP as a vaccine antigen is supported by several considerations. First, PfTRAP, like CSP, binds specifically to sulfated glycoconjugates on hepatic cells [28], suggesting an essential role in sporozoite infectivity, confirmed using PfTRAP knockout parasites [29]. Second, immunization of rodents with PfTRAP selleck compound analogs alone or in combination with CSP protects them against parasitemia after experimental challenge with infectious sporozoites [30] and [31]. Third, several Phase 2 trials of a viral-vectored PfTRAP-based multi-antigen vaccine have consistently delayed [32] and [33],

and in some instances prevented [34], patent parasitemia after experimental challenge with mosquito-borne malaria. We present the initial Phase 1 study conducted to assess the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS combined with PfTRAP, and the subsequent Phase 2 study in malaria naïve adults to assess safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. The Phase 1 trial was conducted in males or females 18–50 years old at the Clinique Notre-Dame de Grâce, Gosselies, Belgium. The Phase 2 challenge trial, conducted at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), USA, enrolled male or females aged 18–45 years, with no history of malaria or previous administration of an investigational malaria vaccine. In both studies,

subjects were eligible if healthy as ADP ribosylation factor established by medical history, clinical examination and laboratory screening, and were seronegative for HBsAg and hepatitis C. The Phase 1 study started in 1998 and was completed in 1999 and the Phase 2 study was conducted and completed in 1999 (see Supplementary Appendix). Subjects in the Phase 1, open trial, were randomized to TRAP/AS02, RTS,S/AS02 or TRAP + RTS,S/AS02 groups (ratio 1:1:2) to receive 3 doses of vaccine administered at 0, 1, 6-months. The Phase 2, double-blind, challenge trial was originally planned to recruit subjects to 2 cohorts; the first cohort to undergo sporozoite challenge after 2 doses and the second after 3 doses of study vaccine. Due to lack of protective efficacy of both vaccines in the first cohort, the second cohort was not enrolled. Subjects in cohort 1 were randomized to receive 2 doses of RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 or TRAP/AS02 (ratio 2.5:1) at 0, 1-months, with sporozoite-infected mosquito challenge planned for 7–30 days after Dose 2.

This organic phase added drop by drop (2 ml/min) in external aque

This organic phase added drop by drop (2 ml/min) in external aqueous phase containing surfactant PVA in a fixed concentration (0.5% w/v) at 13,500 rpm (Omni GLH homogenizer). This suspension was then processed in high pressure homogenizer (Gea Niro Soavi, Italy) for eight cycles. A subsequently

organic solvent from external aqueous phase was removed under reduced pressure. The formed REPA-EC polymeric nanoparticles were recovered by centrifugation (R243A, Remi) at 18,000 rpm Tenofovir for 20 min followed by washing thrice with distilled water and washed nanoparticles were subjected to freeze drying (Scanvac, Denmark). The viscosity of internal phase was measured by Brookfield rotational digital viscometer DVLV II at 25 °C. The obtained REPA-EC NPs were dispersed in distilled water by sonication and vortex mixing for 30 s and the particle size (Z-average mean) and zeta potential were determined by using Nano series Malvern Instruments, UK. The percentage yields of dried nanoparticles were calculated by using Eq. (1) equation(1) Percentageyield=MassofnanoparticlesrecoveredMassofpolymers,drugandformulationexcipients×100

Accurately weighed freeze dried nanoparticles were dissolved in dichloromethane. Then REPA was extracted in 50 ml phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution. After the evaporation of DCM and removal of precipitated polymer by filtration, the amount of drug in phosphate buffer was measured using Ultraviolet selleck chemicals spectroscopy (U2900, Hitachi, Japan) at 275.5 nm. Encapsulation

efficiency (%) and drug content (%, w/w) were represented by Eqs. (2) and (3) respectively. equation(2) Encapsulationefficiency(EE%)=MassofdruginnanoparticlesMassofdrugusedinformulations×100 equation(3) Drugcontent(%,ww)=MassofdruginnanoparticlesMassofnanoparticlesrecovered×100 The shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles were investigated and photographed using Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) (S4800, Hitachi, Japan). Appropriate samples were mounted on stub, using double sided adhesive carbon tapes. Samples were gold coated and observed for morphology, at acceleration voltage of 1.0 kV. The samples (REPA, EC and nanoparticles) were homogeneously mixed with potassium bromide and infrared spectrums were recorded in region of 4000-400 cm−1 by using infrared spectrophotometer (IR-8400, below Shimadzu Co. Ltd., Singapore). X-ray diffraction of samples was carried out using Model-D8 Advance, Bruker AXS GmbH, Germany diffractometer. A Cu Kα source operation (40 kV, 40 mA) was employed. The diffraction pattern were recorded over a 2θ angular range of 3–50° with a step size of 0.02° in 2θ and a 1 s counting per step at room temperature. Accurately weighed samples were suspended in 100 ml phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4). The solution was stirred at 50 rpm with temperature adjusted to 37 ± 1 °C. At programmed time intervals 5 ml samples were reserved and centrifuged at 20,000 rpm for 30 min.

8% of HIV-infected children) [4] Rotavirus infection appears per

8% of HIV-infected children) [4]. Rotavirus infection appears perennially in South Africa with a peak during the cooler season in autumn–winter [7]. This aim of this study was to determine the incidence of hospitalisation for acute gastroenteritis in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children

from a cohort of children under five years of age in Soweto, South Africa, to assist in determining the burden of hospitalisation that would be preventable with rotavirus vaccine. The study population involved a cohort of 39,879 infants, enrolled at six weeks of age, from 2 March 1998 to 30 October 2000 into a phase III trial which evaluated the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) as described [9]. Follow-up for severe illnesses find more in the cohort was undertaken through hospital-based surveillance of all-cause hospitalisation at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital (CHBH) until Quisinostat October 2005. CHBH is a secondary–tertiary levels care hospital and the only public hospital in the area. It is estimated that 90% of all admissions in children from the study area occur to this single hospital, where free health care is provided to all children.

All hospitalisations of study participants at CHBH for any cause were identified, clinical information obtained and an examination performed by a study doctor. The study doctors were not involved in the decision to hospitalise a child, or in the child’s management. Standard of care

of all children admitted with acute gastroenteritis included rehydration, either oral or intravenous, correction of many electrolyte abnormalities and early feeding. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected children was not standard of care in South Africa during the study period. In addition, antiretroviral treatment for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was not routinely provided to mothers and their newborn infants during the study enrolment period. Based on the measured prevalence of HIV infection among women attending antenatal clinics during the duration of the study period, it was estimated that 24.87% of the children enrolled onto the study were born to HIV-infected mothers. The vertical transmission rate, in the absence of antiretroviral intervention, from mother to child was estimated to be 26%, and thus, 6.47% of the study-cohort was imputed to have been HIV-infected [10]. Children hospitalized for any illness at CHBH were evaluated for HIV infection as previously reported [9]. This included confirming HIV-infection status by HIV-PCR testing in children under 18 months of age and by HIV-ELISA testing in older children. This study involved a secondary analysis of the study database which has previously reported on the impact of PCV on pneumococcal disease, including respiratory illnesses [9] and [10].

23 ± 0 02

23 ± 0.02 selleck products logMAR: ∼2.5 ETDRS lines) in

the IV bevacizumab group and at week 48 (−0.29 ± 0.04 logMAR: ∼3 ETDRS lines) in the IV ranibizumab group. There was a significantly greater mean improvement in BCVA in the IV ranibizumab group compared with the IV bevacizumab group at weeks 8 (P = .0318) and 32 (P = .0415), with a trend towards significance at weeks 28, 36, and 40 (P < .10) ( Table 2, and Figure 1, Top). With respect to the proportion of eyes losing or gaining ≥10 or ≥15 ETDRS letters, no significant difference between IV bevacizumab and IV ranibizumab groups was observed (P > .05). In the IV bevacizumab group, the proportion of eyes losing ≥10 ETDRS letters was 6% at week 16 and from weeks 28-40, and 3% at weeks 12, 20, and 24. The proportion of eyes in the IV bevacizumab group that lost ≥15 letters was 3% at weeks 32 and 36. In the IV ranibizumab group, a loss of ≥10 ETDRS letters was not observed at any follow-up visit. A gain

of ≥10 ETDRS letters was observed in 45% and 44% of eyes in the IV bevacizumab and IV ranibizumab groups, respectively, at week 16, and in 61% and 68% in the 2 groups, respectively, at week 48. A gain of ≥15 letters was observed in 15% and 16% of eyes in the IV bevacizumab Selleckchem Tenofovir and IV ranibizumab groups, respectively, at week 16, and in 39% and 48% in the 2 groups, respectively, at week 48 (Figure 1, Bottom). At baseline, mean ± SE central subfield thickness was 451 ± 22 μm and 421 ± 23 μm at baseline in the IV bevacizumab and IV ranibizumab groups, respectively (P = .4062) ( Figure 2, Top). Intragroup significant reduction in central subfield thickness only compared with baseline was observed at all study follow-up visits (P < .05). Maximum mean central subfield thickness reduction occurred at week 44 (−136 ± 23 μm) in the IV ranibizumab group and at week 48 (−126 ± 25 μm) in the IV bevacizumab group ( Table 2, and Figure 2, Bottom). There was no difference in mean central subfield thickness reduction between

the IV bevacizumab and IV ranibizumab groups at any of the study follow-up visits. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of eyes with a central subfield thickness ≤275 μm in the IV ranibizumab group compared with the IV bevacizumab group at weeks 4 (P = .0029; likelihood ratio), 28 (P = .0077), 36 (P = .0028), and 44 (P = .0292) ( Figure 3). The mean (± standard error of the mean; SEM) number of injections in the IV bevacizumab group was 9.84 ± 0.55, which was significantly (P = .005; Wilcoxon) higher than the mean (± SEM) number of injections in the IV ranibizumab group (7.67 ± 0.60 injections). In the IV bevacizumab group, 16 eyes received 12 injections, while only 4 eyes from the IV ranibizumab group were treated with 12 injections ( Figure 4). Two eyes from 2 different patients received rescue laser therapy: 1 from the IV ranibizumab group at week 32 and the other from the IV bevacizumab group at week 36.