This technique aims to prioritize the replantation of fingers tha

This technique aims to prioritize the replantation of fingers that are functionally more important, in cases of amputation of two or more fingers.7 Moreover, it sometimes allows us to associate the shortening technique, technically facilitating the replantation procedure. As already discussed, in avulsion injuries, especially of large segments, we often come across associated loss of skin cover. Many cases can be resolved with a simple partial skin graft, yet some more complex cases require coverage with microsurgical flaps.29 Ideally the skin coverage should be performed in conjunction with the replantation procedure, but it is necessary to weigh the patient’s clinical state and the prolonged surgical time. (Figures 3 to 12) Figure 3 Male patient, aged 32 years.

Avulsion of left thumb caused by lawn mower 4 hours ago. Surgical technique: Transposition of the ulnar artery of the left 3rd digit Left thumb. Figure 4 Male patient, aged 28 years. Amputation left 1st, 2nd and 3rd digits by paper cutter (guillotine + avulsion) 6 hours ago. Surgical technique: Heterotopic replantation of the 3rd digit in the left thumb. Figure 5 Male patient, aged 7 years. Degloving injury left hand with avulsion of the left thumb 2 hours ago caused by industrial machine (bakery). Surgical technique: Dorsalis pedis vein graft for anastomosis between radial artery (anatomical snuffbox) and princeps … Figure 6 Male patient, aged 46 years. Avulsion of left thumb caused by motorcycle chain 5 hours ago. Surgical technique: Stump shortening with primary anastomosis of the vessels and nerves.

Interphalangeal arthrodesis of the thumb. Figure 7 Male patient, aged 33 years. Avulsion of the right arm 3 hours ago after motorcycle accident. Surgical technique: humeral shortening, vascular grafts (great saphenous vein) for artery reconstruction and brachial vein, sural nerve graft for reconstruction … Figure 8 Male patient, aged 24 years. Avulsion of the right forearm 5 hours ago, caused by industrial machine. Surgical technique: forearm shortening; vascular grafts (great saphenous vein) for reconstruction of radial and ulnar arteries and cephalic and basilic … Figure 9 Female patient, aged 29 years. Avulsion of right 4th digit by ring hours ago. Surgical technique: Vascular grafts (veins from palmar system of wrist) for arteries reconstruction and digital veins; Suture of the digital nerves.

Figure 10 Male patient, aged 17 years. Bilateral avulsion of the feet caused by a crane 8 hours ago. Surgical technique: bone shortening; vascular grafts (great saphenous vein of the leg not replanted) for reconstruction of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries … Figure 11 Male patient, aged 32 years. Avulsion of the right thumb Brefeldin_A caused by motor belt 4 hours ago. Surgical technique: transfer of radial digital artery of the middle finger to princeps pollicis artery of the thumb, vein grafts to dorsal veins. Radial sensory …

We need urgent

We need urgent selleckbio steps to improve ethical quality of clinical research and harmonize local regulations with global guidelines. These steps would include: Creation of a central ethics and scientific review body to review and conclude whether the clinical trial meets the benchmarks of social value, scientific validity, fair subject selection and favorable benefit: risk ratio Development of clear regulatory guidance on institutional EC responsibilities, composition, quorum, functions and operations, with specific focus on protection of vulnerable subjects, and EC responsibility for oversight of conduct of clinical research by the investigator. Development of clear regulatory guidance on informed consent process, and documentation, with special emphasis on autonomy, capacity, and literacy.

Mandatory education and training of EC members in science, ethics and regulation of clinical research. Mandatory education and training of investigator and site staff members in science, ethics and regulation of clinical research. Accreditation of ethics committees and investigator sites. Regulatory inspections of investigator sites, ECs and sponsors. These actions are essential for creation of a robust ethical framework for clinical research, which could boost public confidence and provide assurance that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, in compliance with the global principles. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Sir, This recent article (PICR January 2010;1:6-10) states conventionally that ??James Lind is considered thefirst physician to have conducted a controlled clinical trial of the modern era?? Unfortunately there is no evidence that Lind conducted the trial he claimed, nor were there any sailors with scurvy on the Salisbury on 20 May 1747.[1]

A total of 100 patients were consulted during the six-month study period, in an out-patient department at Rohini Superspeciality Hospital. Of these 100 prescriptions, 72% of the patients were in the age group of 65-67 years, followed by 26% in 68-70 years and 2% who were >70 years, and this was found to be higher in men 69% than in women 31%. The numbers of drugs prescribed were in the range of 4-6 per prescription. The Sociodemographic status such as Educational qualification, Occupation, Monthly Income, and Social habits of the patients was summarized in Table 1.

Hypertensive patients were classified on the basis of Joint National Committee (JNC-7) was summarized in Table 2. Table 1 Sociodemographic status of the Cilengitide patients Table 2 Classification of hypertensive patients on the basis selleckchem Pazopanib of JNC-7 The most common drug classes involved in the study was Calcium Channel Blockers 37% followed by Angiotensin II receptor antagonists 21%, and other prescribing patterns of Anti-Hypertensive Drug Monotherapy were summarized in Table 3.


Dramatic Ivacaftor medial and superior temporal drebrin loss plateaus early with mild cognitive impairment by MMSE 26 [12], so loss has already occurred in trial subjects. While DHA reduced both A?? and tau pathology in 3xTg AD mice [13], that intervention was early (pre-pathology). In contrast, with late post-pathology intervention in human tau transgenic mice with significant neuron loss, we find DHA treatment is insufficient to produce significant cognitive and synaptic improvements (GMC and SAF, Society for Neuroscience presentations, 2010). Finally, epidemiological risk factors may be relevant to prevention, but not necessarily to treatment. Animal model data with DHA support early intervention for primary prevention or mild cognitive impairment and suggest a failure to impact tangle and neuron loss driven deficits at later stages.

Although the data demonstrate that DHA has no general benefit for AD, a concern remains as to whether the key negative effect may be driven by the failure of ApoE4 subjects to respond. Since non-ApoE4 carriers comprise a large segment of the US (approximately 75%) and AD (approximately 50%) populations, whether DHA may slow progression in non-ApoE4 carriers is important. Figure 3 in [2] indicates that 40% of non-ApoE4 carriers showed significant (P = 0.03) stabilization of both ADAS-Cog and MMSE, but not with correction for multiple comparisons. The authors point out that three epidemiological studies showed reduced risk with fish consumption only in the ApoE4 non-carriers, but add that pharmacogenomic interaction was not seen with CDR, ADL or NPI.

For example, NPI showed a trend independent of genotype, worsening less (2.93 points) in the DHA group than in the placebo group (5.09 points, P = 0.11). Are pathogenic mechanisms impacting NPI, ADL, CDR and MMSE/ADAS-Cog the same? Thus, any pharmacogenomic potential of DHA requires clarification. For prevention or treatment, one might Batimastat expect ApoE genotype-DHA interactions. Because ApoE4 accelerates pathogenesis, age-matched ApoE4 patients may have more intractable AD pathology. Further, one important target of DHA is insulin resistance [14], but drugs targeting insulin resistance (insulin or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?? agonists) appears more effective at reducing cognitive deficits in ApoE3 carriers than ApoE4 carriers [15]. ApoE is a major central nervous system lipid transport protein with isoform-dependent tracking likely to impact DHA compartmentalization in the brain. Finally, ApoE4 increases oxidative stress, and with six double bonds, DHA is readily oxidized. This raises other critical issues that need to be addressed before pursuing a future selleck products trial: dose and oxidation.

The Alzheimer Prevention Initiative [17] has planned a clinical t

The Alzheimer Prevention Initiative [17] has planned a clinical trial in a large population of presenilin 1 E280A mutation-carriers in Colombia, whose natural history and transition from asymptomatic through early symptoms selleck chemical Ixazomib and cognitive deficits to overt dementia has been precisely mapped in a landmark 15 year follow-up study [19]. The international Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network group has enrolled and characterized people with different APP and presenilin mutations [20] and is planning an intervention clinical trial in at risk carriers who test positive for amyloid biomarkers. Another initiative more closely relevant to sporadic AD proposes to identify amyloid carriers among elderly subjects who are not cognitively impaired and study their outcomes, using cognitive and imaging measures, over a period of two years [16].

In summary, this has been an exciting year for all of us working to improve treatment for people with AD. Greater understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms, gained from research using transgenic animals and new stem cell-based technologies, have revealed possible novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathologies, that is, both A?? and tau pathology. These developments are complemented by the move to identify pre-dementia AD and improve trial design. Together they provide hope for the future. Abbreviations A??: amyloid ?? protein; AD: Alzheimer ‘s disease; APP: amyloid ?? protein precursor; GSK: glycogen synthase kinase; HDAC: histone deacetylase; iPS: induced pluripotent stem; Competing interests DG serves on data and safety monitoring boards for clinical trials for Janssen and Elan Pharmaceuticals and for Balance Pharmaceuticals.

He is a consultant for Elan Pharmaceuticals, Phloronol, Inc., and United BioSource. TG has served on advisory boards related to preclinical studies for Janssen, Novarits, Bristol-Myers Squib and Elan Pharmaceuticals. He has received sponsored research grants from Lundbeck and Myriad Pharmaceuticals in the past. GW has served on advisory boards to a number of pharmaceutical companies, including Jannsen, Shire Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, Cambridge Neurodiagnostics and Roche. He is a consultant to TauRx. DG, TG and GW are Editors-in-Chief of Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy and receive an annual honorarium.

Life expectancy in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is, overall, shorter than what is expected in age-matched, cognitively normal seniors and may be influenced by age, disease severity, general debility, extrapyramidal signs, gender, and race or ethnicity [1-4]. Antipsychotic drugs have also Dacomitinib been linked to increased risk of death in older people HTC with dementia [5-7]. Estimating survival following the recognition of AD is an important health matter for patients and their families who must plan for medical care at the end of life.

The pathological presentation of AD, the leading

The pathological presentation of AD, the leading cause of senile dementia, involves regionalized neuronal death and an accumulation of neuronal and extracellular lesions termed neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, respectively (reviewed in [6]). Several independent hypotheses have been proposed to link the pathological lesions and neuronal cytopathology with, among others, apolipoprotein E genotype [7,8], hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins (neurofilaments and Tau) [9], and amyloid-?? metabolism [10]. However, not one of these theories alone is sufficient to explain the diversity of biochemical and pathological abnormalities of AD. There is limited evidence for neuronal loss in most amyloid precursor protein (APP) models, and when neuronal loss was noted, it was modest [11-13].

Cellular damage by oxidative stress has been proposed as a causative factor in pathophysiology of AD and normal aging. Elevated levels of oxidative damage in both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA have been reported in brains of patients with AD [14], and BER deficiency has been found in post-mortem brains of sporadic patients with AD [15]. However, impaired BER activity found in neuropathological brain regions and in the cerebellum where there is no neuronal death indicates that BER deficiency is not specific to human AD brains [16]. The lack of a difference in BER activity between wild-type and AD model mice brains in any age group [17] indicates that species-specific mechanisms may be involved in AD progression.

Nonetheless, progressive neuronal loss due to cumulative damage to DNA and lack of DNA repair has been hypothesized to contribute to AD and stroke [18,19]. Moreover, human hereditary syndromes with genetic defects in the DNA repair process manifest in early-onset developmental and progressive neurodegeneration, indicating that defects in DNA damage repair are neuropathological [20,21]. In the four major DNA repair pathways (double-strand DNA (dsDNA) break repair (HR and NHEJ), NER, BER, and mismatch repair), key proteins, including some with dual functions, participate in DNA damage sensing/repair and apoptosis (Table ?(Table1)1) [16]. The focus of this review is on how DNA-PK activity may be linked to AD and whether a ’cause and effect’ scenario Brefeldin_A emerges from the reported studies. Table 1 Key proteins involved in various types of DNA repair DNA-dependent protein kinase, a multi-subunit enzyme DNA-PK is a PI3 kinase family member, and like targets of other members (ATR and ATM) of this most family, its preferential targets of phosphorylation are the serines and threonines followed by a glutamine (S-T/Q sites), although other S-T/hydrophobic residues are also phosphorylated [22]. DNA-PK enzyme activity is essential for NHEJ [5].

18 The primary objective of this work is to assess whether hemost

18 The primary objective of this work is to assess whether hemostasis with electrocautery compared to Floseal(r) during primary total knee arthroplasty leads to different rates of perioperative bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a comparative study between two groups: inhibitor Imatinib Mesylate one study group with ten consecutive cases of primary prosthesis using Floseal(r) as hemostatic method, and the control group with 10 consecutive cases of primary prosthesis using electrocautery as hemostatic method. The study included the first 20 patients with primary arthrosis undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients with bleeding disorders or using medications that affect blood clotting were excluded from the study. Anesthetic care, operative and postoperative periods were equal and standardized for both groups.

Anesthetic care All study patients underwent spinal anesthesia with isobaric marcaine 0.5%. The anesthesia team used for volume replacement lactated ringer saline at doses of 10 to 15 ml per kg body weight per hour, and colloidal solution of 6% hydroxyethyl starch in a maximum dose of 1,500 ml during the first 24 hours. The criteria adopted for blood transfusion by the clinical and anesthetic team were: heart rate higher than 120 associated with mean arterial pressure lower than 80 mm Hg or blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg (systolic) and 60 mmHg (diastolic), pulse oximetry lower than 90% and tachypnea (respiratory rate higher than 20). The presence of any of these signs or the need to use vaso-active drug to maintain blood pressure were considered “trigger condition” for blood transfusion.

Surgical standardization Before beginning the procedure, all patients were evaluated according to the objective criteria of the Knee Society Scoring (KSS). 19 All surgeries were performed with the use of an inflated pneumatic tourniquet after venous emptying by elevation of the member for three minutes, without using elastic bandage for limb exsanguination. The pressure used in pneumatic tourniquet was 300 mmHg. Data were collected on the time of limb ischemia and surgical time, in minutes, of all the patients. The surgical time, defined as the time between the start of the skin incision and the last point of incision in the skin was measured in minutes. The surgical approach used was the medial parapatellar way.

The implants used were primary arthroplasties with replacement of Cilengitide the posterior cruciate ligament fixed with cement. In the control group, after placement of the implants, the surgical route was tamponed with surgical dressings and bandages for five minutes, after deflating the tourniquet. After tamponed, hemostasis was performed with monopolar electrocautery. In the study group, Floseal(r) was applied before release of the tourniquet, the regions of potential bleeding, especially in the superior, medial, and lateral recesses. The surgical approach was then tamponed the same way as in the control group.

Materials, compositions and manufacturers are summarized in Table

Materials, compositions and manufacturers are summarized in Table 1. Before the application of each dentin treatment, double-faced adhesive tape, with a hole of 3 mm in diameter was fixed over the dentin surface to limit the bonded surface area. Table 1. Materials used in this study, their compositions and their manufacturers. Group 1: The nano-filled RMGI was applied according to manufacturer instructions. Nano-primer was applied for 15 seconds, air-dried using gentle, compressed-air for 10 seconds, and light cured for 10 seconds with a halogen light-curing unit (Hilux, Dental Curing Light Unit, Benlioglu; Ankara, Turkey) with an output of 600 mW/cm2. Before the application of the nano-filled RMGI, a split Teflon mould, 2 mm in thickness with a central hole of 3 mm in diameter, was fixed over the dentin surface.

The material was dispensed over a pad with the aid of its Clicker? Dispenser, mixed using a metallic spatula for 20 seconds, and applied over the cured primer, then, the material was light cured for 20 seconds. Group 2: Nano-filled RMGI was directly applied over the dentin surface, without the application of the nano-primer and light cured as in Group 1. Group 3: The dentin surface was conditioned using 25% polyacrylic acid for 10 seconds, rinsed with a copious air/water spray for 10 seconds and, blot dried using sterile cotton, leaving the dentin surface visibly moist (wet bonding). Nano-filled RMGI was applied directly over the dentin surface, without the application of the nano-primer and light cured, as in Group 1.

Group 4: The dentin surface was conditioned with 25% polyacrylic acid as in Group 3. Nano-primer and nano-filled RMGI were applied as described in Group 1. Group 5: The dentin surface was etched using 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed for 20 seconds and blot dried as in Group 3. Nano-primer and nano-filled RMGI were applied as described for Group 1. Group 6: The dentin surface was conditioned with EDTA solution for 60 seconds, rinsed for 20 seconds and blot dried as in Group 3. Nano-primer and nano-filled RMGI were applied as described for Group 1. Subsequent to light curing of the nano-filled RMGI, the Teflon mould was dissembled, and the dentin surfaces- with their attached RMGI cylinders- were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37��C. SBS testing After 24 hours, each specimen was mounted to the universal testing machine (LR5K series, Lloyd Instrument; Fareham, UK).

A specially fabricated, metallic, chisel-bladed instrument was positioned as accurately as possible on Anacetrapib the nano-filled RMGI/dentin interface. The test was run at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. The load recorded in Newton was divided over the calculated surface area and the SBS was retrieved in MPa. Groups 2 and 3 were not tested, as all specimens of these two groups failed before testing during the 24-hour storage period, and their SBS was expressed as 0.

Fibroblasts are recruited from surrounding intact tissue and begi

Fibroblasts are recruited from surrounding intact tissue and begin to synthesize and deposit collagen. The process is amplified by both paracrine and autocrine cascades, and a temporary matrix of (weaker) type III collagen, fibronectin, and glycosamino-glycans is laid down in the wound. Phase III: Maturation and Remodeling (Week 1�CYear 1) The third and final stage of wound healing is marked by the evolution of the matrix into a highly refined and ordered collagen complex. Inability to mature results in a weak and ineffective scar; overzealous refining results in keloid formation. Myofibroblasts begin to shrink and contract the wound to minimize the amount of collagen deposition that is required; the wound further contracts as collagen fibers crosslink to increase their strength.

Collagen deposition continues to occur over 4 to 6 weeks.1,2 Initially, the collagen is laid down in thin fibrils that run parallel to the wound��s surface. As the wound matures, the thin collagen fibers become progressively thicker and reorient themselves in such a fashion as to minimize stress. This is reflected as increasing tensile strength of the wound over the postoperative period. At 1 week the wound has 3% of its final strength, at 3 weeks it has 30% of its final strength, and at 3 months and beyond, it has approximately 80% of its final strength.2 Wounds will never regain the strength of uninjured tissues.

Effects of Foreign Bodies and Excess Inflammation on Wound Healing The presence of foreign bodies (ie, suture material) in wounds induces excessive inflammatory tissue responses that lower the body��s defense mechanism against infection, interfere with the proliferative phase of wound healing, and ultimately lead to inferior wound strength due to excessive scar tissue formation. Although normal wound healing from surgical trauma involves an inflammatory process, as briefly described above, these reactions typically subside within a week as phase I transitions into phase II. However, inflammatory tissue reactions due to the presence of suture material will persist as long as the foreign body remains within the tissue. The degree of tissue reaction in turn depends largely on the chemical nature and physical characteristics of the various suture materials. Classification and Characteristics of Suture Materials There are numerous ways to classify suture material.

One can look at natural versus synthetic fibers, coated versus uncoated, dyed versus undyed, or almost any property versus another property of the materials used. For the purposes of this review, we discuss 6 categories of suture classification that we believe best assist surgeons in choosing the proper suture Drug_discovery material for their surgeries. These are: Suture size Tensile strength Absorbable versus nonabsorbable Multifilament versus monofilament Stiffness and flexibility Smooth versus barbed Suture Size Sutures of all compositions are available in a variety of sizes.

Oberlin himself, justifying the randomized use of fascicles in hi

Oberlin himself, justifying the randomized use of fascicles in his initial study, declares that at arm level, the ulnar nerve fascicles are mixed (with sensory and motor fibers). 3 Osman et al., 20 in a histomorphometric Paclitaxel microtubule study of the ulnar nerve and its branches, concluded that the ulnar nerve has 52% and 48% of sensory and motor fibers respectively; and that fascicles to the motor branch of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle, represent 9.5% of the section area of the ulnar nerve, for which reason it is a good option for transfer and neurotization of the motor branch of the biceps brachii. Sungpet et al. 8 and Ferraresi et al., 10 using a nerve stimulator, seek to select motor fascicles for the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle. Bertelli and Ghizoni; 9 Teboul et al.

11 and Shahriar-Kamrani et al. 12 use the nerve stimulator to select motor fascicles of any extrinsic flexor in order to preserve the innervation of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. Despite technical variations in the selection of the fascicles, the functional results and, especially, the absence of ulnar nerve deficit, are similar among authors. It can be stated that the fascicular definition of the ulnar nerve along its course in the arm should present a major variation among individuals; some having clearly differentiated motor and sensory fascicles at this level and others presenting this definition in more distal segments. We noticed that the nerve stimulator should be used at all times, but by means of inconclusive motor responses we should not penalize those that proceed in a random manner, in the selection of the fascicles; since the mode of selection of the fascicles does not change the results.

In patients with well-defined fascicles and with C7 deficit, preserving the branches to the FCU can be useful, targeting a future tendon transfer to reestablish the active extension of the fingers. In our series, the first signs of reinnervation appeared between two and six months. We observed in our patients that the early appearance of the reinnervation signs is also correlated with the final recovery of elbow flexion strength; patients who presented biceps contraction with MRC grade > 1 strength up to three months after surgery had the best long-term results. In the literature the first signs of reinnervation also appeared between two and six months after surgery, but the various authors cited did not correlate the early appearance of the contractions with the end results.

Frey states that the results of a neurotization distal to the brachial plexus are superior to those obtained by a proximal reconstruction, since the latter will prolong the reinnervation period and result in greater muscle atrophy. 21 The proximity of the ulnar nerve to the endplate of the biceps explains the early appearance of the reinnervation signs after Entinostat the Oberlin procedure. Such proximity also ensures a tension-free neurorrhaphy, which eliminates the need for grafts.

This practice of patient recruitment may be criticized, but we th

This practice of patient recruitment may be criticized, but we think it is justified according to our low incidence of ITBL. Thus, it was possible to investigate 19 patients with ITBL. ITBL rate in CCR-5��32 patients was virtually equal to the selleck one in CCR-5 wild-type patients. No statistically significant differences regarding ITBL or retransplantation were observed. Why would CCR-5��32 mutation promote the development of ITBL? CCR-5��32 is a 32-base-pair deletion within the coding region of CCR-5, which results in a frame shift and generates a nonfunctional receptor [11]. Homozygous expression of CCR-5��32 is associated with a reduced risk of asthma and with a reduced severity of rheumatoid arthritis [17, 18], multiple sclerosis [19, 20], and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) [21].

In other words, the nonfunctional nature of CCR-5��32 protects the individual from autoimmune diseases where CCR-5 seems to play a central pathophysiological role. These data do not backup the theory, that immunological risk factors are dominant in the development of ITBL. Likewise, a correlation of a reduced survival rate with CCR-5��32 would not be consistent to the literature, where CCR-5��32 mutation is associated with an increased survival in renal [12], lung [13], heart [14] and islet cell transplantation [15]. In contrast to those findings, CCR-5��32 is strongly associated with an increased severity of PSC [22]. Patients suffering from PSC have been described as carrying a higher risk for ITBL, with a reported significantly increased incidence of 15.8% to 25% [1, 8, 23].

Another study reported PSC as the only independent risk factor for ITBL with an incidence of 31% compared with 9% of the control group [24]. However, the problem of differentiation between ITBL and recurrence of PSC must be addressed. Recurrence rates of 8.6% to 25% were described for PSC after OLT [25�C27]. The diagnose of recurrence of PSC is based on cholangiographic findings of intrahepatic, hilar and/or exrahepatic strictures, duct irregularities and on the histopathological picture of fibrous cholangitis and/or fibro-obliterative lesions with or without ductopenia, biliary fibrosis, or biliary cirrhosis [28]. Carfilzomib Most of these findings are neither pathognomonic for either recurrence of PSC nor ITBL [29]. All patients with ITBL in this study underwent percutaneous liver biopsy, and our pathologists ruled out PSC recurrence. There remains a diagnostic uncertainty. Since two of three studies failed to show an association between ITBL and CCR-5��32 gene polymorphism, a general recommendation for screening of OLT patients for CCR-5��32 does not seem to be justified.
Anemia is virtually universal at the time of kidney transplantation [1].