, 2007). Moreover, some ROS, such as ROO , HO and 1O2, can also be generated in food and cosmetics and act U0126 mouse as oxidant agents contributing to the degradation of these products (Choe & Min, 2006). The antioxidants consumed in the diet are important in maintaining the balance between ROS and RNS, especially when the endogenous
antioxidant defense system is not able to scavenge the proper amounts of generated reactive species. Carotenoids and tocopherols (Supplementary Fig. S1) are two important classes of bioactive compounds present in the diet that are associated with a reduced risk of chronic degenerative diseases. This effect is mainly attributed to the attenuation of oxidative and/or nitrosative events linked to these diseases pathogenesis (Rock, 2009). Moreover, food and cosmetic products can also benefit from the addition of these bioactive compounds due to their antioxidant selleck inhibitor capacity in the prevention of the oxidation of lipids, proteins, vitamins, among other constituents. The application of lipophilic antioxidant compounds in such products is not easy due to their low solubility in aqueous systems and high susceptibility to degradation by high temperature, low pH and presence of light and oxygen, especially the carotenoids (Mercadante, 2008). Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a technique
widely used in the industry to provide stability and to allow the incorporation of ingredients with low solubility in water, such as flavours, lipids, vitamins and carotenoids, into food products (Gharsallaoui, Roudaut, Chambin, Voilley, & Saurel, 2007). Besides, as antioxidant compounds are able to maintain, at least partially, their antioxidant capacity when microencapsulated,
Ketotifen it becomes possible to add lipophilic compounds into aqueous systems to scavenge ROS and RNS (Faria et al., 2010 and Montenegro et al., 2007). Recently our research group produced and characterized microcapsules with gum arabic (GA) and maltodextrin DE 20 (MD), as wall materials, containing β-carotene, apo-8′-carotenal, apo-12′-carotenal, α-tocopherol and trolox, and verified a significant ability to quench 1O2 (Faria et al., 2010). To continue this previous study, the antioxidant capacity of these microcapsules against other ROS and RNS of biological relevance, namely ROO , H2O2, HO , HOCl and ONOO−, was evaluated in the present study. Furthermore, this is the first time that the capacity of microcapsules containing antioxidants molecules to scavenge these ROS and RNS is reported. The carotenoid standards used to prepare the microcapsules were β-carotene (98% purity), α-tocopherol (97% purity), 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox, 99.5% purity), purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (Missouri, USA), and apo-8′-carotenal (96% purity) and apo-12′-carotenal (91% purity), kindly donated by DSM Nutritional Products (Basel, Switzerland).