A better understanding the distribution of NGF-dependent neurons in the brain will provide a framework for further studies to investigate pain, interoception and emotional responses. Furthermore, strategies targeting the molecular mechanisms through which the NGF–TrkA system BYL719 datasheet functions may provide hope for the development of novel analgesics. “
“A developmentally regulated protein-specific transfer mechanism across choroid plexus epithelial cells has previously been proposed to contribute to the characteristically high concentration of protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the immature brain. Here
we demonstrate that this mechanism is sensitive to protein variations in plasma resulting
in changed numbers of transferring cells for individual proteins and altered transfer into the CSF. Pups of Monodelphis domestica at postnatal day (P)9, P65 and P110 were injected intraperitoneally with either adult Monodelphis plasma or exogenous bovine fetuin. Samples of CSF, blood and brain were collected from terminally anaesthetized animals 3–48 h GDC 941 later. The concentration of total protein was measured and levels of albumin, hemopexin, α-fetoprotein and bovine fetuin were estimated by western blotting. Numbers of lateral ventricular choroid plexus cells positive for total and individual plasma proteins were counted in paraffin sections of brains stained with appropriate antibodies. Following intraperitoneal injections, the content of proteins in the CSF increased at all three these ages, but the concentration increased only in the CSF of older animals. The total numbers of plexus cells positive for plasma protein did not change significantly, but cells positive for individual proteins did. Fetuin was detected in all protein-positive cells, but apparently displaced α-fetoprotein and, to a lesser degree, hemopexin. The results indicate that protein transfer across the blood/CSF barrier appears to be regulated by a molecular
recognition mechanism that is probably saturable but may not be as specific for individual proteins as previously suggested. “
“Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in degeneration of oligodendrocytes that leads to demyelination and axonal dysfunction. Replacement of oligodendrocytes is impaired after SCI, owing to the improper endogenous differentiation and maturation of myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we report that SCI-induced dysregulation of neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1)–ErbB signaling may underlie the poor replacement of oligodendrocytes. Nrg-1 and its receptors, ErbB-2, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4, play essential roles in several aspects of oligodendrocyte development and physiology. In rats with SCI, we demonstrate that the Nrg-1 level is dramatically reduced at 1 day after injury, with no restoration at later time-points.