Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection excep

Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that the density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats during the puerperium, whereas the expression of the excitatory regulators dynorphin A and neuregulin-1 in the spinal cord is reduced. The puerperium did not alter spinal cord microgial and astrocyte activation.

Astrocyte activation, selleck chemicals llc as measured by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, was not evident in female rats with injury, regardless of delivery status suggesting sex differences in spinal astrocyte activation after injury. These results suggest IWR-1 research buy a change in the descending

inhibitory/facilitating balance on spinal nociception neuro-transmission during the puerperium, as mechanisms for its protective effect against injury-induced hypersensitivity. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug threat in the United States and worldwide. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for treating METH abuse is showing exciting promise and the understanding of how mAb structure relates to function will be essential for future development of these important therapies. We have determined crystal structures of a high affinity anti-(+)-METH therapeutic single chain antibody fragment (scFv6H4, K(D) =

10 nM) derived from one of our candidate mAb in complex with METH and the (+) stereoisomer of another abused drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known by the street name “”ecstasy.”" The crystal structures revealed that scFv6H4 binds to METH and MDMA in a deep pocket that almost completely encases the drugs mostly through aromatic interactions. In addition, the cationic nitrogen of METH and MDMA forms a salt bridge with the carboxylate group of a glutamic acid residue and a hydrogen bond with a histidine side chain. Interestingly, there are two water molecules in the binding pocket and one of them is positioned for a C-H center dot center dot center dot O interaction with the BLZ945 aromatic ring of METH. These first crystal structures of a high affinity therapeutic antibody fragment against METH and MDMA (resolution = 1.9 angstrom, and 2.4 angstrom, respectively) provide a structural basis for designing the next generation of higher affinity antibodies and also for carrying out rational humanization.”
“Purpose: There are few studies of the long-term outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi. We report the long-term outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with staghorn calculi.

Material and Methods: A total of 265 study patients (272 renal units) were followed in the long term for greater than 12 months.

Therapies targeting CX3CL1 may treat serotonin related mood disor

Therapies targeting CX3CL1 may treat serotonin related mood disorders, including depression experienced by patients with compromised immune systems. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Plant reproduction depends on pollen dispersal. For anemophilous (wind-pollinated) species, such as grasses and many trees, shedding pollen from the anther must be accomplished by physical mechanisms. The unknown nature of this process has led to its

description as the ‘paradox of pollen liberation’. A simple scaling analysis, supported by experimental measurements on typical wind-pollinated plant species, is used to estimate the suitability of previous resolutions of this paradox based on wind-gust aerodynamic models of fungal-spore liberation. According to this scaling analysis, the steady Stokes drag force is found to be large enough to liberate anemophilous pollen grains, and unsteady boundary-layer Cl-amidine research buy forces produced by wind gusts are found to be mostly ineffective since the ratio of the characteristic viscous time scale to the inertial time scale of acceleration of the wind stream is a small parameter for typical anemophilous species. A hypothetical model of a stochastic aeroelastic mechanism, initiated by the atmospheric turbulence typical of the micrometeorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant, selleck compound is proposed to contribute

to wind pollination. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There is evidence check details of structural and functional deterioration in the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, during the normal

aging process in animals and humans. Extracellular matrix-associated glycoproteins, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), are involved in not only maintaining the structures and functions of adult neurons, but also regulating the proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth of neural stem cells in the brain. On the other hand, a herbal medicine, yokukansan (YKS), is used in a variety of clinical situations for treating symptoms associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, but its pharmacological properties have not been fully understood. The present study was designed to clarify the influence of aging and the improving effects of YKS on the expression of aggrecan, a major molecule of CSPGs, and on the proliferation and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells identified by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the PFC and hippocampus including the dentate gyrus. Aged rats (24 months old) showed a significant increase in aggrecan expression throughout the PFC and in the hippocampus particularly in the CA3 subfield, but not the dentate gyrus compared to young rats (5 months old), evaluated by the immunohistochemical method. YKS treatment decreased the age-related increase in aggrecan expression as well as normal expression in young rats.

Our present experiments thus provide evidence for antidepressant-

Our present experiments thus provide evidence for antidepressant-induced upregulation of SRIF in the brain, and strengthen the

notion that augmented SRIF expression and signaling may counter depressive-like symptoms.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Anxiety and Depression’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper we Silmitasertib supplier describe the cloning, expression and identification study of the TIP30 gene from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri). The amphioxus TIP30 cDNA is comprised of 1499 bp and is translated in one open-reading frame to give a protein of 237 amino acids, with a predicted 23 amino acids signal peptide, a 147 bp 5′-UTR and a 638 bp 3′-UTR. A multiple alignment of TIP30 from amphioxus with other known TIP30 sequences shows the conservation of most amino acid residues involved in the peculiar structural domains found within TIP30′s. Phylogenetic analysis places AmphiTIP30 at the base of the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that AmphiTIP30 is the archetype of the vertebrate TIP30 genes. We express the amphioxus TIP30 gene in Escherichia coli. driven by T7 promoter. The recombinant amphioxus TIP30 protein was purified by HisTrap affinity column. Subsequently, the binding constant and enzyme activity was mensurated. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that amphioxus has a native molecular mass of approximately

26 kDa, and TIP30 was strongly expressed in ovary. Finally, the initial function of TIP30 is discussed. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Rabusertib research buy Inc.”
“Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) selectively Torin 1 mouse relocalizes many DNA repair proteins, thereby avoiding a potentially detrimental damage response. In the present study, we evaluated interactions between HCMV and the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. In permissive human foreskin fibroblasts, a fluorescence-based double-stranded break repair assay was used to determine that HCMV stimulated HDR. Repair of both stably integrated and extrachromosomal

reporter substrates was observed to increase. HDR was also stimulated through individual expression of the viral immediate-early protein IE1-72, mimicking full virus infection. These experiments further demonstrate HCMV’s role in modulating critical cellular processes during a permissive infection.”
“About 80% of the brain is water. This review discusses the importance of the three brain water-channel proteins (AQP1, AQP4, AQP9) in brain physiology. AQP1 is expressed in the choroid plexus and participates in forming cerebrospinal fluid. AQP4, found in astrocyte foot processes, glia limitans and ependyma, facilitates water movement into and out of the brain, accelerates astrocyte migration and alters neuronal activity. Recently, AQP4 autoantibodies were discovered in patients with neuromyelitis optica, a demyelinating disease, and are now being used to diagnose this condition.

Considering the fact

that these related alphavirus-like p

Considering the fact

that these related alphavirus-like positive-strand RNA viruses infect a wide variety of organisms, these findings suggest that the ancestral positive-strand RNA viruses might be of ancient origin and/or they might have radiated horizontally among vertebrates, insects, plants, and fungi.”
“Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), i.e. lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages are key players in the development of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, little is known about their properties in patients with acute MK-1775 cost stroke. Experimental procedures: We presently characterized the early time course of PBMC subpopulations in 19 patients with acute ischemic stroke and symptom onset below 6 h compared to 19 age-matched healthy subjects. Immediately A-1331852 after acute ischemic stroke, as well as 1 and 3 days thereafter, PBMC subpopulations (cluster of differentiation [CD]3+, CD14+, CD19+, CD68+) were isolated by magnetic bead system and the expression of proinflammatory (CD40, tumor

necrosis factor-alpha [TNF alpha]), proapoptotic (caspase-3 [CPP32], poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP]) and adhesion relevant (CD38) genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, besides routine parameters, plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) were studied. Results: In comparison to healthy subjects, patients revealed (i) twofold elevated plasma oxLDL concentrations, (ii) decreased (15%) blood cholesterol levels, and (iii) a 40% decrease in total number of lymphocytes. Furthermore, the majority of PBMC subpopulations revealed an increased expression of proinflammatory, proapoptotic or adhesion-relevant genes. Significant positive correlations were observed between expression of most of these genes in PBMCs and individual plasma oxLDL concentrations. Conclusion: Elevated expression of proinflammatory, this website proapoptotic and adhesion genes

in subsets of PBMCs after ischemic stroke may contribute to an immunodepressive syndrome, possibly due to increased plasma oxLDL levels. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit the replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif overcomes these host restriction factors by binding to them and inducing their degradation. Thus, the Vif-A3G and Vif-A3F interactions are attractive targets for antiviral drug development, as inhibiting these interactions could allow the host defense mechanism to control HIV-1 replication. Recently, it has been reported that amino acids 105 to 156 of A3G are involved in the interaction with Vif; however, to date, the region of A3F involved in Vif binding has not been identified.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Our objective was to determine whether regional visceral perfusion during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction attenuates postoperative acute kidney injury.

Methods: A technique to

provide simultaneous perfusion to the brain and viscera during aortic arch reconstruction in neonates was developed and applied (multisite perfusion). The selleck compound effect of the technique on postoperative renal function was assessed by comparing the incidence of acute kidney injury in neonates undergoing multisite perfusion to a control group of neonates who underwent aortic arch reconstruction with regional cerebral perfusion alone.

Results: Thirteen neonates underwent multisite perfusion during procedures involving reconstruction of the

aortic arch. Twenty-four neonates who underwent similar procedures with regional cerebral perfusion alone were selected as controls. The incidence of acute kidney injury in those undergoing multisite perfusion was 8% (n=1), compared with 50% (n=12) in the control group (P=.01). The median percentage change in estimated creatinine clearance was 0 (-33 to +60) in the multisite perfusion group, compared BAY 1895344 cell line with -29 (-50 to +14) in the control group (P<.01). Patients in the multisite perfusion group were less frequently exposed to preoperative nephrotoxins and intraoperative aprotinin and had a higher prevalence of preoperative comorbidity, a shorter duration of E7080 molecular weight regional cerebral perfusion, and a longer length of stay in the intensive care unit.

Conclusions: Acute kidney injury is common after reconstruction of the aortic arch in neonates. By providing direct visceral perfusion during surgery, this simple multisite perfusion technique may ameliorate acute

kidney injury in these neonates. Further investigation of this technique is warranted. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 453-8)”
“Prior work has demonstrated a unique network involving the insula, temporal cortex, and precuneus in evaluating appropriate relationships between tool-object pairings under instruction [20]. However, are there automatic tendencies to evaluate appropriate tool-object pairings? Using electroencephalography (EEG), we emulated our prior work to identify neural mechanisms that, in the absence of task-related consciousness, differentiate functionally matching from mismatching tool-object pairs. This was compared to any activation consistent with this using environmental image pairs. In addition, based on the paradigm we were able to discern any naive processes that distinguish tools from non-tool environmental images. Results show that without task-related consciousness, the left occipitotemporal gyrus is preferentially active for tools compared to environmental images.

The replication of these recombinant viruses

is attenuate

The replication of these recombinant viruses

is attenuated, and they have an enhanced shedding of noninfectious particles and are incapable of antagonizing interferon (IFN) effectively. Our findings highlight the possibility of increasing influenza virus protein expression and the need for a delicate balance between influenza viral replication, protein expression, and assembly.”
“Caspases are vital to apoptosis and exist in the cell as inactive zymogens. Dimerization is central to procaspase activation because the active sites are comprised of loops from both monomers. Although initiator procaspases are stable monomers until activated Selleckchem MI-503 on cell death scaffolds, the effector caspases, such as procaspase-3, are stable dimers. The activation mechanisms are reasonably well understood in terms of polypeptide chain cleavage and subsequent active site rearrangements in the dimer, but the mechanisms that govern dimer assembly are not known. To further understand procaspase dimerization, we examined the folding and assembly of procaspase-3 by fluorescence

emission, circular dichroism, differential quenching by acrylamide, anisotropy, and enzyme activity assays. Single-mixing stopped-flow refolding studies showed a complex burst phase in which multiple monomeric species form rapidly. At longer times, the monomer folds through several intermediates, some of which appear to be off-pathway or misfolded, before eventually forming a dimerization-competent species. Enzyme activity studies demonstrated a slow rate of dimerization

(similar to 70 M(-1) s(-1)). In addition, single-mixing stopped-flow unfolding studies revealed a complex unfolding process with a slow rate of dimer dissociation. Interestingly, multiple dimeric species were observed in the burst phase for unfolding, suggesting that the native ensemble consists of at least two major conformations. Collectively, these results demonstrate complex folding and unfolding behavior for procaspase-3 and suggest that slow dimerization results NU7026 from the lack of stabilizing native contacts in the initial encounter complex.”
“TNPO3 is a nuclear importer required for HIV-1 infection. Here, we show that depletion of TNPO3 leads to an HIV-1 block after nuclear import but prior to integration. To investigate the mechanistic requirement of TNPO3 in HIV-1 infection, we tested the binding of TNPO3 to the HIV-1 core and found that TNPO3 binds to the HIV-1 core. Overall, this work suggests that TNPO3 interacts with the incoming HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm to assist a process that is important for HIV-1 infection after nuclear import.”
“Quantitative measurement of small molecules with high spatiotemporal resolution provides a solid basis for correct understanding and accurate modeling of metabolic regulation.

The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF

The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162-p3 variant with one V3 and one gp41 sequence change in gp160 that conferred both altered replicative fitness and resistance to PSC-RANTES was therefore surprising. We introduced the same two mutations into both the parental HIV-1(SF162) and the macaque-adapted SHIVSF162-p3 and found minor differences in entry fitness but no changes in sensitivity to inhibition by either PSC-RANTES or the small-molecule allosteric inhibitor learn more TAK-779. We attribute the earlier finding to confounding fitness effects with inhibitor sensitivity.”
“Endogenous opioid peptides (EOP) and dopamine

(DA)-derived salsolinol are implicated in the suckling-induced prolactin surge. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the opioidergic and salsolinergic activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus of nursing sheep. The sheep were infused intracerebroventricularly with

opioid receptors antagonists: naloxone (all types of receptors, n=6); naloxonazine (mu receptor, n=6) or the vehicle (control, n=6) in a series of five 30-min infusions (60 mu g/60 mu l) from 10:00 to 15:00, at 30-min intervals. The period of the experiment included the non-suckling (10:00-12:30) and suckling (12:30-15:00) periods. Simultaneously, a push pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence was performed in every sheep to study the dopaminergic system activity. Blood samples were also collected at 10-minute intervals to determine plasma prolactin concentration. Both CH5183284 the mean perfusate salsolinol and plasma prolactin concentrations were higher during the suckling vs. non-suckling

(P<0.001) period in the control. The perfusate DA concentration was below the detection limit in this group. Treatment with either naloxone or naloxonazine significantly (P<0.01) diminished plasma prolactin concentration, as compared with the controls and blocked the prolactin surge during suckling. In drug-infused sheep, the perfusate salsolinol concentration was below the detection limit but the increased DA and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were observed. In conclusion, the stimulatory action of EOP on prolactin Idasanutlin ic50 secretion in nursing females is mediated, at least in part, by salsolinol, and the ligands for mu opioid receptor may be the primary factors of this relationship, especially with respect to the suckling-induced prolactin surge. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Influenza A virus buds through the apical plasma membrane, forming enveloped virus particles that can take the shape of pleomorphic spheres or vastly elongated filaments. For either type of virion, the factors responsible for separation of viral and cell membranes are not known.

Here, we examined, using fMRI, activation differences on a visual

Here, we examined, using fMRI, activation differences on a visual task wherein feature grouping was a precursor to the formation

of distinct groups in the service of target location and identification.

Method: Fourteen schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls completed a target detection task with 2 conditions: one in which target-distractor grouping facilitates detection (the Isolated condition) and one in which it hinders detection (the Embedded condition). Stimuli were blocked by condition. Accuracy and RT data were obtained in addition to fMRI data.

Results: Patients and controls did not differ significantly in accuracy or RI in either condition. Within this context, controls demonstrated greater recruitment LY2109761 mw of brain regions involved in visual-spatial processing, and the groups differed in activity in areas known to support visual search, visual

analysis, decision making and response generation.

Conclusion: These findings are consistent with past data indicating reduced processing of stimulus organization, and the subsequent use of inefficient visual search strategies, even under conditions when behavioral performance is at a high level and matches that of healthy controls. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are associated with respiratory, ocular and gastrointestinal infections as well as potentially fatal disseminated disease in highly immunocompromised

patients. Although there is no specific FDA approved treatment for HAdV infections, some antivirals are used in certain patients. The in vitro antiviral assays for HAdV are not standardized and are usually time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate a real time PCR assay for rapid determination of susceptibility of HAdV to antiviral drugs. The nucleoside analogue stavudine (d4T) was used as GW4064 purchase test drug in A549 cells infected with HAdV5. The antiviral assay measured the reduction of the HAdV DNA levels in culture supernatants by real time PCR using specific primers that amplify a conserved region of the hexon gene. This real time PCR assay demonstrated that stavudine was a selective inhibitor for HAdV5, since the effective concentration 50% (EC(50)) ranged from 0.08 to 0.12 mM at multiplicity of infection between 0.001 and I. Furthermore, EC(50) showed a high correlation with plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays (r(2) = 0.9938 and r(2) = 0.9468, respectively). In conclusion, the real time PCR-based antiviral assay is rapid, reproducible and could replace classical and more labor-intensive infectivity assays. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing.

Results: Standard urinary

Results: Standard urinary Rigosertib clinical trial flow rates were established in the 13 to 15-year-old control group and represented on a nomogram. In the boys who underwent hypospadias surgery the urine flow rates were significantly lower compared to the control nomogram (p <0.0001), with half the patients having uroflow rates below 1 SD from the control mean but without symptoms. Boys with significant preoperative chordee were more likely to have poorer urinary flow (p <0.04). A poor urinary flow rate also was significantly

associated with post-void residual bladder volume (p <0.03). There was no correlation with original meatal location, number of operations, presence of postoperative complications, current anatomy and lower urinary tract symptoms (eg post-void dribble, hesitancy, incontinence).

Conclusions: At long-term followup after hypospadias surgery urinary flow rates were significantly lower compared to age matched controls but still fell within the normal range. In the hypospadias cohort there was no significant association with lower urinary tract symptoms and poor urinary

flow. Detection of poor urinary flow may indicate incomplete Selleckchem Milciclib bladder emptying. The presence of severe chordee preoperatively is a significant risk factor for poor urinary flow rates on long-term followup.”
“Diverse pathological changes occur in the white matter (WM) of patients with schizophrenia. Various microstructural alterations including a reduction in axonal number or diameter, reduced myelination, or poor coherence of fibers could account for these changes. Abnormal integrity of macromolecules such as myelin (‘dysmyelination’) can be studied by applying multiple modalities of WM imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) in parallel. Using ultra-high field

(7 Tesla) MTI in 17 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls, we evaluated the voxelwise distribution of macromolecular WM abnormalities. Patients had a significant reduction in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in WM adjacent to visual processing regions and inferior temporal cortex (Cohen’s d = 1.54). Pifithrin-�� supplier Among the regions showing MTR reduction, a concurrent reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) occurs proximal to the lingual gyrus. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the degree of FA reduction in the putatively ‘dysmyelinated’ regions in patients predicted impaired processing speed (PS; beta = 0.74; P = 0.003), a core cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In controls, MTR/FA in the occipito-temporal regions were not associated with PS. Our findings suggest that dysmyelination in visual processing regions is present in patients with schizophrenia with greatest cognitive and functional impairment. Combined DTI/MTI deficits in the occipito-temporal region may be an important variable when considering potential treatment targets for improving cognitive function in schizophrenia.

26, p<0 06), and renalase (r=0 34, p<0 05) In multiple reg

26, p<0.06), and renalase (r=0.34, p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis VAP-1 was predicted 80% by serum creatinine (beta value 0.33, p=0.01), and CD146 (beta value 43, p=0.0005). Conclusion: VAP-1, elevated in kidney transplant recipients, is predominantly dependent on endothelial damage and kidney function, which deteriorated with time after kidney transplantation. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Macrophages and dendritic cells (Des) are at the front line of defence against fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Together with physical barriers, such as mucus and a range of antimicrobial compounds, they constitute a major part of the intrinsic and innate MEK162 immune

systems. They have elaborate features, including pat-tern recognition receptors (PRRs) and specialized end ocytic mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines,

Cediranib nmr and the ability to call on reserves. As masters of manipulation and counterattack, viruses shunt intrinsic and innate recognition, enter immune cells, and spread from these cells throughout an organism. Here, we review mechanisms by which viruses subvert endocytic and pathogen-sensing functions of macrophages and DCs, while highlighting possible strategic advantages of infecting cells normally tuned into pathogen destruction.”
“The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway is thought to be involved in neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, we examined the involvement of beta-adrenoceptor signaling on the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells LDC000067 clinical trial into neural progenitor cells. Mouse iPS cells were cultured on ultra-low-attachment dishes to induce embryoid body (EB) formation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 1 mu M) and/or the beta-adrenoceptor agonist L-isoproterenol (0.3 or 1 mu M) were added to the EB cultures for 4 days, then EBs were plated on gelatin-coated plates and cultured for 7 or 14 days. Subtype-specific antibody staining revealed that mouse iPS cells express beta(1)-adrenoceptors predominantly. Although treatment with L-isoproterenol alone did not affect the

expression of Nestin (a specific marker for neural progenitor cells), L-isoproterenol significantly enhanced ATRA-induced Nestin expression. Pretreatment of EBs with either atenolol (a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist) or H89 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) significantly inhibited the L-isoproterenol-enhancement of ATRA-induced Nestin expression. In addition, the L-isoproterenol treatment significantly enhanced ATRA-induced expression of NeuN (a neuron-specific nuclear protein). These findings suggest that beta(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation enhances ATRA-induced neural differentiation of mouse iPS cells. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are expressed in brain regions implicated in the rewarding effects of natural stimuli and drugs of abuse.