Follow-up studies on knock-out mutants confirm this complex pictu

Follow-up studies on knock-out mutants confirm this complex picture [8,9]. As this filamentous bacterium grows in heterogeneous pellets, it has been difficult to perform reproducible cultivations in shake flasks. Recently, we introduced a dedicated optimized batch fermentation strategy as part of a technical platform for generating reproducible expression data of Streptomyces coelicolor [10]. The central processes inside the cell during transition phase are turning off biosynthesis of cell building blocks while preserving synthesis of antibiotic precursor

metabolites and energy production for maintenance purposes. The comprehensive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analysis of intra- and extracellular metabolite pools is called metabolomics, and mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical resonance (NMR) have become the two most popular technologies in this field [11]. The advantages of MS are the high sensitivity and excellent resolution when combined with gas and/or liquid chromatographic (GC/LC) separation of complex biological extracts. GC/LC-MS analysis is either Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical performed with a non-targeted or a targeted strategy. The former approach aims at identifying

metabolites (e.g., biomarkers) of the biological system under study, while the latter aims at quantifying known compounds. Targeted analysis is of particular interest in systems biology since quantified metabolite pool data can be used directly in the integrated data analysis [12]. As the metabolome comprises compounds with a wide diversity in physico-chemical properties, ranging from highly charged to selleck chem hydrophobic metabolite species, it is necessary to use several GC-MS and LC-MS methods for a comprehensive coverage of the most abundant metabolites [13,14]. In particular, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LC-MS has become an invaluable

tool in profiling families of secondary metabolites [15,16,17], and an LC-MS based method has only recently been applied in a metabolite analysis study of a synthetic metabolic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical switch in S. coelicolor [18]. In the present study, we have used both GC-MS and LC-MS/MS to monitor changes in the intracellular pools of important metabolite groups like amino and non-amino organic acids, phosphometabolites and nucleotides during the entire lifetime of S. coelicolor batch fermentations including in particular the period of metabolic AV-951 selleck products switching to antibiotic production phase. The term ‘metabolic switching’ is nowadays often used in the sense of describing the molecular events during the transition from primary to secondary metabolism, and in the present study, we have chosen to use the term in this broader molecular sense. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high resolution time-course metabolic profiling study in Streptomyces spp. to understand how the primary intracellular metabolite pools change in response to metabolic switching from growth to secondary metabolite production phase. 2. Results and Discussion 2.1.

33 The REM-promoting system comprises “REM-on” cholinergic

33 The REM-promoting system comprises “REM-on” cholinergic neurons located in the laterodorsal

tegmental (LDT) and pediculopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei (Figure 3). The McCarley and Hobson reciprocal interaction model, first inhibitor order us proposed in 1975, and regularly revisited,14 posits a bidirectional inhibitory influence between these REM-on neurons and both the serotonergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DRN and the noradrenergic LC, called “REM-off” neurons. Transition from NREM to REM occurs when activity in the aminergic REM-off neurons ceases. Cholinergic LDT/PPT REM-on neurons are then involved in the initiation of cortical desynchronization through excitatory inputs to the thalamus and in the occurrence of muscle atonia and REMs. During Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical REM sleep, the excitatory input from the REM-on neurons to the DRN and LC leads to a gradual increase in the activity of the REMoff neurons, which in turn inhibit REM-on neurons until the REM episode ends. GABAergic and glutamatergic modulations of this aminergic-cholinergic interplay have been proposed in the revised version of the model.14 Figure 3 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Simplified representation of various structures implicated in rapid

eye movement (REM) mechanisms and their interrelationships. Light-blue boxes, activated structures; blue boxes, deactivated structures; light-blue arrows, excitatory influences; blue … The effects of drugs on wake-and sleep-inducing mechanisms In the following sections, we will review the effects of

psychotropic drugs on the three interacting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuronal systems that have been proposed to play a key role in sleep-wake regulation (the wake-promoting system, the NREM-promoting system, and the REM-promoting system). The first four sections deal with drugs acting on wake- or NREM sleep-promoting neurons, while the following section concerns drugs acting on the REMpromoting system with special reference to antidepressant drugs. Whether drugs induce wakefulness (“waking drugs”) or sleep (“hypnosedative drugs”) depend on their liability to stimulate or inhibit wake- or NREM sleep-promoting neurons. Before going further, it Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical should be stressed that the net effects of a hypnosedative drug inhibiting wake-promoting neurons will be very similar to the effects of a drug stimulating NREM-promoting Cilengitide neurons. The selleck bio converse is true for waking drugs: the effects of a drug inhibiting NREM-promoting neurons will parallel those induced by a drug stimulating wakepromoting neurons. Finally, it should be recognized that a distinction between drugs acting on wake- or NREMpromoting neurons is somewhat arbitrary, due to the close reciprocal negative feedback existing between these two groups of neurons.7 Some drugs directly influence both wake-promoting neurons and sleep-promoting neurons, but in an opposite way; this is the case for compounds influencing adenosine transmission such as caffeine.

2012) 14-3-3 proteins regulate


2012). 14-3-3 proteins regulate

phosphorylation-mediated cell signaling kinase inhibitor Tofacitinib including MAPK pathways; thus, Sepw1 may function in signal transduction from receptors to target proteins via reactive oxygen intermediates. High muscle expression of Sepw1 mRNA is associated with myoblasts, and expression is decreased in differentiated myotubes (Loflin et al. 2006). Thus, the abundance of Sepw1 mRNA and protein in postmitotic neurons is mysterious. Sepw1 mRNA is widely expressed in neurons, including apparent expression in axonal and dendritic compartments [(Willis et al. 2005, 2007; Taylor et al. 2009; Cajigas et al. 2012) supplemental data]. Whether sellekchem translation of Sepw1 occurs in these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical distal cellular compartments is uncertain. Selenoprotein translation in mammals specifically requires the proteins Sbp2 and EFSec, in addition to the standard translation machinery. Both of these proteins were identified in synaptosomes along with Sps2 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and Scly, which are important in Sec metabolism. The major protein involved in selenoprotein translation that was not investigated in this study is the Sec-synthetase enzyme, SepSecS. SepSecS, also known as soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas antigen, is required to generate the

Sec-loaded tRNASec (Palioura et al. 2010). We were unable to test for the presence of SepSecS in synaptosomes. However, given the proteins identified in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical synaptosomes, synthesis of Sepw1 at or near synapses appears to be plausible. Selenoprotein Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mRNAs are thought to be packaged into mRNP complexes, which aid in preventing nonsense codon-mediated decay (NMD) of transcripts with a Sec-specifying UGA that could be interpreted as a premature termination codon. Staufen proteins Stau1 and Stau2 are involved

in a related process termed Staufen-mediated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical decay (Park et al. 2013), and we have shown that Sepw1 mRNA associates with Stau2 in SH-SY5Y cells. This finding is supported by data showing that Sepw1 mRNA is found in Stau2-mRNP complexes in both HEK293 cells and embryonic rat brains ([Maher-Laporte and DesGroseillers 2010] supplemental data). Stau2 is particularly abundant in brain and contributes to dendritic transcript localization and translational regulation (Duchaine et al. 2002; Mikl et al. 2011). Here, Cilengitide we demonstrate that Sepw1 is highly expressed in brain and synapses, and suggest that its translation is under control of RNA-binding proteins such as Stau2. In addition to Stau2, DJ-1/Park7 has been experimentally demonstrated to coimmunoprecipitate with Sepw1 mRNA in M17 human neuroblastoma cells and human brain tissue (van der Brug et al. 2008; Blackinton et al. 2009). DJ-1 is a multifunctional redox-sensitive protein that is associated with Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and cancer (Kahle et al. 2009). DJ-1 protein has shown varying degrees of localization to synapses, axons, and dendrites (Olzmann et al. 2007; Usami et al. 2011), further suggesting the local regulation of Sepw1 expression in distal neuronal compartments.

In 2008, Beitinger and colleagues reanalyzed six antipsychotic tr

In 2008, Beitinger and colleagues reanalyzed six antipsychotic trials (n=2463) of patients with schizophrenia comparing two sets of remission criteria12: the RSWG criteria (full criteria in the three scientific assay mid-term to long-term studies; 28 to 52 weeks) using scores of ≤3 (“mild” or better), ≤2 (“very mild” or better) or 1 (“not present”) and the Lieberman criteria. Applying the RSWG criteria to the mid-term studies with or without time criterion resulted in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the following frequencies:

scores ≤3 (LOCF): 42%/11%, ≤2 (LOCF): 16%/1.8%, 1 (LOCF): 3.4%/0%; in the long-term studies with or without time criterion: scores ≤ 3 (LOCF): 42%/11%, ≤ 2 (LOCF): 13%/2%, 1 (LOCF): 5%/1%. Compared with the remission criteria by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Lieberman, the RSWG remission criteria were less restrictive (week 28: 38% vs 60%). The authors concluded that the results of more stringent thresholds within the proposed remission criteria (scores of ≤2 or lower) show that a score of mild or better is a “realistic choice, more stringent thresholds yield remission frequencies are

not realistic.” In 2009, Cassidy et al tested four sets of remission criteria in 141 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients for prediction of functioning at the 2-year end point13: (i) all SAPS positive items (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, positive formal thought Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rated ≤2 (severity) for 3 reference consecutive months; (ii) all SAPS positive items rated ≤2 for 6 consecutive months; (iii) all SAPS positive and negative items (affective flattening, alogia, avolition-apathy, anhedonia-asociality) rated ≤2 for 3 consecutive months; (iv) all SAPS positive and negative items rated ≤2 for 6 consecutive months. Totals of 94% and 84% of subjects for 3 and 6 months achieved positive symptom remission, compared with 70% and 56% for positive and negative symptom remission, respectively. Linear Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical regression analyses showed that only remission criteria containing both positive and

negative symptom criteria independently predicted functional outcome. The authors concluded that consistent with the consensus definition of remission, severity of both positive and negative symptoms AV-951 is necessary although a 3month criterion had equal predictive validity to a 6month criterion. In summary, the following conclusions were able to be drawn: The new remission criteria by Andreasen et al1 are less stringent than the remission criteria by Lieberman et al8 and more stringent than the remission criteria by Liberman et al.11 A higher stringency means that fewer patients will fulfill the remission criteria, but if fulfilled, the patients have a better clinical status. It is therefore likely that remission criteria with higher stringency will display a better predictive validity for a broader outcome.

For each case, a minimum of 20 metaphases were analyzed by using

For each case, a minimum of 20 metaphases were analyzed by using the CytoVision® chromosomal Gemcitabine solubility karyotyping automatic system (Genetix Company-USA). Karyotype was written according to the International Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN 2009). A successful cytogenetic analysis

required the detection of at least 2 or more cells with the same structural change or chromosomal gain, 3 or more cells with the same chromosomal loss, in at least 20 metaphases.7 The patients’ karyotypes were thereafter subdivided into groups based on the WHO classification (2008).2 In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we reported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical descriptive statistics, including mean age and incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities, using the SPSS software selleck catalog package Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (version 18). Moreover, we performed comparisons in terms of cytogenetic subclasses and age groups using the Pearson chi-square test with MED CALC software. Results We conducted a cytogenetic analysis of 168 ALL patients,

comprising 154 B-ALL and 14 T-ALL cases. The 154 B-ALL patients were comprised of 53 females at a mean age of 12.13 ± 14.07 years and 101 males at a mean age of 14.65±15.76 years (mean age=13.78±15.2 years, range=1 month to 79 years). Children accounted for 108 (70.1%) cases at a mean age of 5.79±3.73 years (lower than 15 years), and adults comprised Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 46 (29.9%) cases at a mean age of 35.36±14.82 years. The 14 T-ALL patients were composed of 5 (35.7%) children and 9 (64.2%) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical adults, and all of them, with the exception of one, were male (92.9%). Karyotyping was unsuccessful in 26 patients: 15 specimens were cultured but did not have metaphases and 11 samples had too few metaphases to be adequate or had too poor quality to be interpreted. There were 128 cases of successful cytogenetic analysis of B-ALL patients, with 49 (38.3%) cases, 16 (12.5%) adults and 33 (25.7%) children, showing normal karyotypes. Normal karyotypes were found in 6 out of the 14 (46.1%) T-ALL patients.

The frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities, including numerical and/or structural changes, was 61.7% and 53.8% in the B-ALL and T-ALL patients, respectively. There were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 13 T-ALL patients with successful karyotyping: 6 (46.15%) patients had normal karyotype and the main abnormalities were Dup21, del 6q21, der 13, dup 1, t(11;14), near tetraploidy, and del 1. Figure 1 and table 1 depict the distribution of the cytogenetic abnormalities in the T-ALL patients. Anacetrapib The main cytogenetic abnormality was hyperdiploidy (47 to >65 chromosomes) in 42 (32.8%) B-ALL patients. In the children group, the most common abnormality was hyperdiploidy in 34 (38.6%) patients in comparison with the adults, in whom hyperdiploidy was found in 8 (20%) patients. Hyperdiploidy with 51-65 chromosomes, as the sole abnormality, was significantly more frequent in the children (24/27.3%) than in the adults (1/2.5%) (P<0.05). Deletions, duplications, and translocations were the main structural chromosomal abnormalities.

She also found that after doing something with her friends, she f

She also found that after doing something with her friends, she felt better as well. Her therapist then drew the connection between her increased socializing and her improved mood. As Anne continued to work on regularizing her daily routines and improving her satisfaction with her interpersonal relationships, she felt her depressive symptoms begin to dissipate. Belinostat ptcl Anne’s therapist remained cognizant of

Anne’s history of mania, and kept a careful eye out for any signs that Anne’s mood disorder Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was not actually remitting, but rather was cycling into an episode of mania. She stressed that it was important for Anne to not become too overstimulated (especially considering the often hectic nature of her job), in the hopes of preventing a manic recurrence. Anne remained in the acute phase of treatment for approximately

22 weeks, and then moved into the maintenance phase of treatment. After three biweekly sessions, Anne and her therapist moved to monthly sessions where they focused on maintaining Anne’s routine regularity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and strove to stay ahead of any potential pitfalls to her progress, particularly the stress of impending divorce proceedings. Efficacy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of IPSRT IPSRT has been supported empirically through two large studies involving the therapy in combination with pharmacotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The first of these studies18 involved 175 patients with bipolar I disorder who presented for treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical while in the midst of a depressive, manic, or mixed episode. In this two-phase study, these individuals were randomly allocated to four acute and maintenance treatment sequences: acute and maintenance IPSRT (IPSRT/IPSRT), acute and maintenance intensive clinical management (ICM/ICM), acute IPSRT and maintenance ICM (IPSRT/ICM), or acute ICM and maintenance IPSRT (ICM/IPSRT).

Patients were seen weekly during the acute phase and then Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical progressed to biweekly and finally monthly sessions during the maintenance phase. Therapy lasted approximately 55 minutes, while ICM sessions, which focused primarily on psychoeducation about bipolar disorder and addressing any issues with medication side effects, were roughly 25 minutes in duration. The maintenance phase lasted for 2 years. Initial analyses revealed no differences among conditions in terms of time to stabilization, likely due to the strong pharmacological Brefeldin_A impact on time to remission. After controlling for significant covariates of survival time (marital status, significant medical comorbidities, and comorbid anxiety disorders) we found that individuals who received acute IPSRT survived longer without a new episode, regardless of the nature of their maintenance treatment (P=0.01). Patients who received acute IPSRT achieved significantly higher regularity of social rhythms than those individuals assigned to acute ICM (P≤0.

Functional psychoses are divided into reactive24,28 and endogenou

Functional psychoses are divided into reactive24,28 and endogenous32 with the delusional psychoses33-36 in between. Endogenous psychoses are divided into affective (including manic depressive inhibitor Brefeldin A illness, pure melancholia, pure mania, pure depressions, and pure euphorias), JQ1 Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor cycloid, and schizophrenic, with the latter being divided into unsystematic (cataphasia, affect-laden paraphrenia, and periodic catatonia) and systematic (paraphrenias [ie, phonemic, hypochondriacal, confabulatory, grandiose,

fantastic, and incoherent], hebephrenias [ie, autistic, eccentric, shallow, and silly], and catatonias [ie, paraldnetic, proskinetic, speech prompt, speech Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inactive, manneristic, and negativistic]).32 Psychosis in consensus-based classifications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical To overcome the difficulties created by using different diagnostic criteria, for the same diagnostic terms by different schools of psychiatry and in different

cultures and language areas, consensus-based classifications were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO)37-39 and the American Psychiatric Association (APA).40-44 A consensus-based classification is a set of diagnostic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical formulations agreed upon by a body of experienced and well-informed psychiatrists.“45 DSM-I The first consensus-based classification with a description of diagnostic terms was the first edition of the APA’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I) published in 1952.40 It was based on Adolf Meyer’s46 psychobiological view Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that mental disorders represent reactions of the personality to social, psychological, and biological factors, and that psychoses are whole reactions, unlike the other psychiatric disorders, which are only part reactions:47,48 Mental disorders in DSM-I are divided into two – or three with the inclusion of mental deficiency – classes of illness: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (i) organic disorders, caused by or associated Carfilzomib with impairment of

brain tissue function; and (ii) disorders of psychogenic origin or without clearly defined physical cause or structural changes in the brain. Psychotic disorders, including involutional, affective (manic depressive reactions and psychotic depressive reactions), schizophrenic, and paranoid reactions, are one of the five categories in the second class. In DSM-I,40 psychotic disorders are defined as diseases characterized by personality disintegration, failure to test and evaluate correctly external reality, and inability to relate effectively to people or work. In affective reactions, the psychosis is characterized by severe mood disturbance, with the mood alterations of thought and behavior in consonance with affect.

2009] Another virosome vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis

2009]. Another virosome vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV), Epaxal (Crucell NV, Leiden, The Netherlands), was developed as hepatitis A vaccine. It is excellently tolerable Raf pathway and highly immunogenic, conferring protection of at least 9–11 years in vaccinated individuals [Ambrosch et al. 1997; Gluck and Walti, 2000; Bovier et al. 2010]. Immunogenicity and safety of Epaxal was evaluated in Thai children with HIV infection. Prevalence of HAV protective antibodies was 100% after vaccination, showing that Epaxal is an effective HAV vaccine for HIV-infected children [Saksawad et al. 2011].

Another vaccine contains an aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans incorporated into IRIVs. Following intravaginal administration, anti-Sap2 antibodies were detected in vaginal fluids of rats, inducing long-lasting protection [De Bernardis et al. 2012]. Walczak and colleagues demonstrated that a heterologous prime boost with Semliki Forest virus encoding a fusion protein of E6 and E7 of HPV16 and virosomes containing the HPV16-E7 protein resulted in higher numbers of antigen-specific CTL in mice than homologous protocols [Walczak et al. 2011]. Today, a second generation of influenza virosomes has evolved for various preclinical and clinical stage

vaccine candidates. Additional components are included to optimize particle assembly and stability and to enhance immunostimulatory effects [Moser et al. 2013]. GPI-0100, a saponin derivative,

enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a virosomal influenza vaccine, providing full protection of infected mice at extremely low antigen doses [Liu et al. 2013]. A combination of reconstituted respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) envelopes with incorporated MPLA (RSV-MPLA) virosomes was studied by Kamphuis and colleagues in enhanced respiratory disease prone rats. Vaccination with RSV-MPLA induced higher antibody levels and protection against infection [Kamphuis et al. 2013]. Jamali and colleagues developed a DNA vaccine using cationic influenza virosomes (CIV). CIV-delivered epitope-encoding DNA induced equal numbers of IFNγ and granzyme B-producing T cells than a 10-fold higher dose of naked pDNA [Jamali et al. 2012]. Another DNA/virosome vaccine was reported by Kheiri and colleagues, who prepared a vaccine complex containing an influenza NP-encoding plasmid that induced much higher T-cell responses and protection than plasmid alone [Kheiri Batimastat et al. 2012]. In clinical trials, IRIVs have shown vast potential for delivery of peptides derived from Plasmodium falciparum antigens [Peduzzi et al. 2008]. An IRIV-formulated fusion protein composed of two malaria antigens was described by Tamborrini and colleagues. Compared with other vaccines, the adjuvant-free formulation elicited specific IgG1 antibody profiles in mice and cross reactivity with blood-stage parasites [Tamborrini et al.


The concept of IPN goes back at least as far as 1914 when the first interpenetrating polymer network was invented by Aylsworth [10]. This was a mixture of natural rubber, sulphur, and partly reacted phenol-formaldehyde resins. The term IPN was introduced for the first time by Miller in 1960s in a scientific study

about polystyrene networks [11]. Since that time the field of IPN has expended dramatically. Figure 1 (a) A polymer blend; (b) a graft copolymer; (c) a block copolymer; (d) semi-IPN; (e) full IPN; F- cross-linked copolymer. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. IPNs have shown superior performances over Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the conventional individual polymers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in the area of drug delivery. These biocompatible, nontoxic,

and biodegradable polymer networks are now acquiring unique place in delivering bioactive molecules, particularly in fda approved controlled and targeted drug delivery applications. Various research investigations have shown that a variety of drugs can be delivered effectively via IPN based delivery systems (Table 1). Table 1 Delivery of variety of drugs via different IPN based novel carriers. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2. Classification of IPN 2.1. Based on Chemical Bonding [12] 2.1.1. Covalent Semi-IPN When two separate polymer systems that are cross-linked form a single polymer network, it Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is called covalent semi-IPN. 2.1.2. Noncovalent Semi-IPN In noncovalent semi-IPNs only one of the polymer systems is cross-linked. 2.1.3. Noncovalent Full IPN A noncovalent full IPN is one in which the two separate polymers are cross-linked independently. 2.2. Based on Method of Synthesis IPNs are of different types: sequential IPN, subsequent IPN, latex IPN, gradient IPN, and thermoplastic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IPN. 2.2.1. Sequential IPN In sequential IPN, the first cross-linked polymer network is swollen by the monomer of the

second polymer that is Entinostat polymerized and/or cross-linked afterwards. In this class an IPN is formed by polymerizing the first mixture of monomer (I), cross-linker, and initiator to form a network. The network is swollen with the second combination of monomer (II) and cross-linker which is polymerized to form an IPN [6]. Sequential IPNs are easy to synthesize. The primary requirement is that monomer (II) and coreactants swell properly into polymer network I. Usually elastomers are used for network I because they swell easily compared to glassy network (Figure 2). Figure 2 Sequential IPN formation. 2.2.2. Simultaneous IPN An IPN is formed by polymerization of two different monomer and cross-linking agent pairs together in one step [6, 7].

One approach in the field of crime scene documentation used the o

One approach in the field of crime scene documentation used the optical digitizer ��Konica-Minolta Vivid 910�� in different sensor configurations to generate a multi-resolution map [8]. This triangulation-based range sensor works within a range between 0.6 m and 2.5 m with an accuracy up to a tenth of a millimeter [13] and can be equipped with different optics (wide, middle, tele) to acquire point-clouds in different resolution classes. Using these optics, a simulated crime scene was imaged from multiple viewpoints, and various point clouds with different resolutions were recorded. These point-clouds were aligned using the semiautomatic procedure ��ImAlign�� from the commercial PolyWorks software.Nevertheless, most of the approaches required the interaction of an operator for the alignment of single 3D point-clouds or the fusion of 3D range and 2D image data.Locating and aligning 3D-models to a scene containing multiple different objects is a well-known problem in computer vision. So-called 3D keypoint detectors [14,15] are used to generate and describe a set of distinct points of the model and all points of the scene. Thus, homologous keypoints of the model and the scene can be used to calculate the 3D-transformation matrix between both datasets.A further application where automated object recognition is required is the well-known ��bin-picking problem�� in robotics. The goal of the bin-picking approach is the automated interaction of a robot with its direct environment. Therefore, objects that should be picked up by a robot have to be identified in a 2D or 3D image. The recognition step is commonly realized by using different feature descriptors, like, e.g., scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) [16] or fast directional chamfer matching (FDCM) [17] in the 2D case and, e.g., the RANSAM (random sample matching) algorithm [18] in the 3D case.Using established commercial sensors for data acquisition is quite expensive and requires intensive operator training. With the rise of different low-cost 3D sensors, an economic and simple imaging alternative is available. These sensors usually work within the same accuracy range as the more expensive ones, but with the advantage of much lower investment costs (Table 1) [19]. Furthermore, the technology of low-cost systems, which are based on consumer products, is commonly very user-friendly; thus, they are usable without intensive training.Table 1.Overview of the main sensor properties for the David and the Kinect sensor.In this study, we present an automated alignment approach for 3D point-clouds. This approach combines the advantages of multiple sensors regarding measuring volume and resolution by generating a multi-resolution map.