In 1984, Weiss and Hofmann8 inhibitor Paclitaxel presented data showing a 12% decrease in insulin requirements between 10 and 17 weeks gestation. Following the 17th week of gestation, the total insulin requirements increase by more than 50%.8 Although these data presented important fluctuations in insulin requirements and physiologic changes during pregnancy, the limited study size and different insulin regimens used in the study limit the statistical significance. A recent prospective study involving 65 T1DM patients further characterized insulin requirements throughout pregnancy. Using assays and glycemic control parameters not previously available, Garc��a-Patterson and colleagues9 were able to follow total insulin requirements, insulin requirements based on weight, while controlling for glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1C), and mean blood glucose levels.
As previously suggested by Weiss and Hofmann, 2 peaks in insulin requirements, one at week 9 and the other at week 37, were observed.8 After the initial peak at around 9 weeks, a slow decrease in insulin requirements was noted. The average nadir point was documented to be at 16 weeks, with a subsequent rise until 37 weeks gestation.9 Of note, a recent Danish prospective study by Nielsen and colleagues10 showed an increase in C-peptide during pregnancy in diabetic patients. This study consisted of 90 gravid T1DM patients with a median duration of diabetes of 17 years (1�C35 years). Even in patients with undetectable C-peptide prior to pregnancy, a rise in serum levels was noted. A median change in C-peptide levels of 50% was reported.
10 These data provide yet another factor that could be contributing to the variability of insulin requirements throughout the progression of pregnancy. Complications Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal, is a common occurrence with classic insulin replacement therapies.3 Increasing insulin requirements, alongside tight glycemic control, increase the propensity for episodes of insulin overdose. Counter-regulatory hormones, such as cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine, which protect against hypoglycemia, are blunted in pregnancy. The warning signs of hypoglycemia, such as tachycardia, diaphoresis, weakness, and pallor, occur in response to these hormones. In addition to the blunted response seen during pregnancy, patients with T1DM have a reduced glucagon and cortisol response inherent to the disease.
The combination of these phenomena can mask hypoglycemia.11 Patients and family should be counseled on the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and instructed to give the patient a glass of milk or juice when concerned about low blood sugar. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Insulin deficiency creates a metabolic state that is interpreted as starvation by the body. In response to the decreased intracellular glucose concentrations, Dacomitinib the body is forced to tap into energy stores by processing fatty acids.