86, 95% confidence interval, 1 .78-2.94). This finding suggests that although
duration of amnesia appears protective of development of intrusive traumatic memories, MTBI nonetheless confers risk for developing PTSD. It is for this reason that whereas mild TBI appears to increase risk for PTSD, presence of PTSD after more severe TBI (in which there is limited encoding of trauma memories) is less common. Delayed-onset PTSD Post-traumatic stress symptoms typically occur in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the initial days and weeks after trauma exposure, and then gradually abate in most people; a minority of trauma survivors can suffer persistent PTSD.88 Delayed-onset Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical PTSD refers to cases of PTSD in which the condition develops at least 6 months after the trauma. Most studies indicate that delayed-onset PTSD is rare. Although uncommon
following civilian trauma, it has been reported to occur more frequently in troops returning home from deployment.89,90 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A review of delayed-onset PTSD studies found that it was rare for PTSD to develop outside military samples, with up to one third of military cases presenting as delayed-onset91; specifically, it is reported in 38% of military cases compared with 15% in civilian cases. To date, there has not been any systematic study of delayed-onset PTSD following MTBI. It is possible that sustaining Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical an mild TBI may contribute to delayed-onset PTSD in the military, and this may be one factor in the increased rates of delayed-onset PTSD in the military. It is possible that following MTBI sustained in combat, one feels the need to fill the gap of knowledge of the events that affected them. Consistent with reports of TBI patients confabulating events in order to make sense of what occurred to them during the loss of consciousness,61 it is possible that one explanation of delayed-onset PTSD, especially in the military, is the pattern of subsequently reconstructing the traumatic
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical events in the wake of impaired consciousness. The possibility that trauma memory reconstruction in the post-deployment period contributes to PTSD needs to be studied in military populations, and points to the potential importance of ensuring that adaptive, rather than maladaptive, reconstructions of events occur those in the months after injury. Impairment following MTBI There is enormous concern in the wake of the Iraq/Afghanistan wars over the impairment caused by MTBI. Many millions of dollars arc being devoted to rehabilitation procedures to minimize the potential adverse effects of MTBI on soldiers affected by it. Recent studies are indicating, however, that MTBI itself is responsible for www.selleckchem.com/products/jsh-23.html minimal impairment.