The statistical data demonstrated that even when the GQDs concentration was at 200 μg/mL, HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor the apoptosis rate (1.0% to 1.5%) and necrosis rate (5.5% to 5.8%) were still comparative with that of the control cells (1.1% and 5.6%, respectively). Figure 7 Representative FACS images and the statistical results of cell apoptosis rate and necrosis rate. After exposed to 200 μg/mL of the three kinds of GQDs. (a) Statistical results of cell necrosis. (b) Statistical results of cell apoptosis.
Raman spectral analysis To further investigate the influence of the three modified GQDs on the cells, the Raman selleck chemicals spectra of cells were explored. Based on inelastic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy measures molecular vibrations and provides ‘fingerprint’ signatures of cell components, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids [32, 33]. Figure 8 depicted the average Raman spectra of cells, where ‘a’ was for A549 cells and ‘b’ was for C6 cells. Nine main bonds were observed in the Raman spectra: C-C symmetric stretching in lipids (880 cm−1), phenylalanine (1,003 cm−1), C-N stretching
in proteins (1,088 cm−1), C-N, C-C stretching in proteins (1,127 cm−1), tyrosine and phenylalanine (1,174 cm−1), C-C6H5 stretching of phenylalanine (1,209 cm−1), CH deformation in proteins (1,320 cm−1), CH deformation in DNA/RNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates (1,450 cm−1), and selleck inhibitor amide I α-helix (1,659 cm−1) [34–37]. In comparison with the control cells, no obvious changes in Raman shift and Raman intensity were observed in the spectra of cells treated with the GQDs even at the concentration up to 200 μg/mL. Protein tyrosine phosphatase The results provided molecular level evidence for the biocompatibility
and low cytotoxicity of aGQDs, cGQDs, and dGQDs. Figure 8 Raman spectra of cells. (a) Mean Raman spectra of A549 cells before and after exposure to 200 μg/mL of GQDs. (b) Average Raman spectra of C6 cells before and after treated with GQDs at the concentration of 200 μg/mL. Excitation wavelength, 785 nm. Conclusions The present study investigated the cell distribution of three GQDs modified with different functional groups and compared their cytotoxicity in A549 and C6 cells. The fluorescent images of cells indicated that the GQDs accumulated in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus after incubation for 12 h. When the concentration reached 50 μg/mL, three GQDs can illuminate the cells effectively. It was demonstrated that the three GQDs induced slight cell proliferation decreases at high concentrations. However, no visible mortality and apoptosis or necrosis increases resulted from the treatment of the three GQDs even at the concentration of 200 μg/mL.