All of these represent well known effects of toxic compounds in crude oil such as PAHs. Using a broader approach as shown in Additional files 4 and 5, the IPA Core Analyses suggest that chemically and mechanically dispersed oil share many of the top networks. Even when looking at transcripts that were uniquely affected in larvae from the different http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Trichostatin-A.html exposure groups, the data suggest a relatively similar mode of action in both exposure groups. As shown in Figures 4 and 5, transcripts common for the CDH and MDH groups, suggest that the dispersed oil mainly affected genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Conclusions In conclusion, this work suggests, if a significant altered number of affected genes can be used as a proxy to deter mine the exposure intensity, that chemically dispersed oil has lower toxic effects on Atlantic cod larvae than mech anically dispersed oil.
Cytochrome P450 gene transcripts were most strongly affected in the exposed fish larvae. The main difference in mechanistic response between the two different oil dispersion treatments, was that chem ically dispersed oil appears to have a stronger effect on nu cleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling than mechanically dispersed oil, whereas the latter have Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a more pronounced effect on proteasome mediated protein prote olysis. Functionally, chemically and mechanically dis persed oil mainly affected similar mechanisms in the cod larvae, suggesting that the dispersant did not contribute strongly to the observed responses.
Methods Materials and experimental Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries set up Atlantic cod larvae were supplied from a commercial hatchery and hatched in the laboratory. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries To wards the end of the yolk sac stage on days 10 14 post hatch the larvae were exposed to dispersions of chemically and mechanically Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries dispersed oil with Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries similar oil concentra tions and oil droplet sizes. The exposure period coincides with the first feeding period with the final absorption of the yolk sac and transition to external feeding. Dispersions were generated using the method described by Nordtug et al. Three concentrations were used for both chemically and mechanically dispersed oil. The nom inal amount of oil added was 0. 25, 0. 79 and 2. 5 mg oil L seawater. Analyses of PAHs were used to verify the actual exposure. For the chemically dispersed oil, the dispersant Dasic NS was premixed into the oil before the oil was dispersed.
In order to achieve similar oil droplet size distributions the energy input for generating the dispersion with Dasic NS was lower than for selleck screening library the purely mechanically generated dispersion. The crude oil was artificially weathered by heating, creating a 200 C residue before dispersed into filtered seawater through a series of nozzles yielding a constant flow of dispersion with a homogenous droplet size.