As exemplified in Figure 5A

As exemplified in Figure 5A KPT-8602 solubility dmso Δphx1 mutant became sensitive to oxidants such as H2O2 (peroxidation

agent), paraquat and menadione (superoxide-generating agent), diamide (thiol-specific oxidant) and also to heat at 42°C. These results indicate clearly that Phx1 confers fitness to cells not only during nutrient starvation but also under oxidative and heat stress conditions. We analyzed whether these stress conditions induce the expression of the phx1 + gene by analyzing its RNA by qRT-PCR. The results in Figure 5B demonstrate that these acute stresses indeed elevated the level of phx1 + mRNA. Figure 5 Stress-sensitivity of  Δphx1  mutant and the inducibility of  phx1   +  gene by various stresses. (A) Stress-sensitivity of Δphx1 mutant. To examine INK1197 manufacturer sensitivity of the wild-type (JH43) and Δphx1 mutant to various oxidants and heat, exponentially growing cells in liquid EMM at 30°C were treated with 10 mM of H2O2, 20 mM of paraquat, 20 mM of diamide, or 2 mM menadione for 40 min each, or transferred to 42°C incubator for 30 min. Following stress treatment, equal number of cells were serially diluted, spotted onto EMM plates, and incubated at 30°C for 4 to 5 days. (B) Inducibility of phx1 + gene by various stresses. The wild-type (JH43) cells were grown to mid-exponential phase (OD600 of 0.5-1) in liquid EMM at 30°C, and treated

with 10 mM hydrogen peroxide, 20 mM paraquat (PQ), 20 mM diamide (DA), or 2 mM menadione (MD) for 40 min each, or heat-shocked at 50°C for 30 min. RNA samples were analyzed for the level of phx1 + transcript

in comparison with act1 + , an internal control, by qRT-PCR. The average induction folds with standard deviations (error bars) from three independent experiments were presented. The Δphx1/Δphx1 diploid is defective in sporulation When cells are starved of nutrients such as nitrogen or carbon sources, haploid yeast cells find other mating-type partners, conjugate to form diploids, which subsequently undergo meiotic division and sporulation. All of these sexual development processes are controlled by an extensive gene expression program [28, 29]. A genome-wide analysis of S. pombe transcriptome has revealed that phx1 + (SPAC32A11.03 c) is one of the genes that are highly induced during meiotic spore formation [28]. This led us to examine Tryptophan synthase whether Phx1 plays any role in meiosis. We first examined the mating efficiency of Δphx1 mutant cells. Crossing h – and h + haploid Δphx1 strains showed similar mating efficiency (54.2 ± 0.5%) to that of the wild type (56.7 ± 0.9%). Crossing between the wild type and Δphx1 was similarly effective (53.1 ± 2.9%). This suggests that Δphx1 mutation does not significantly impair conjugation and diploid formation. Therefore we obtained homozygous diploid strain Δphx1/Δphx1 and examined the formation of tetrad meiotic spores by incubating in EMM.

However, the numbers of patients with events were very small in a

However, the numbers of patients with events were very small in all cases (1–24). Fig. 2 Relative risk estimates (moxifloxacin versus the comparator) for adverse events from pooled data on (a) elderly patients, (b) patients with diabetes mellitus, and (c) patients with renal impairment. The data are stratified by route

of administration (oral only; intravenous this website followed by oral [sequential]; intravenous only).The number of patients enrolled in each subgroup (moxifloxacin versus the comparator) is shown at the top of each graph, and the numbers of patients with each of the recorded events are shown to the left of the corresponding symbol. Calculations were made using the Mantel–Haenszel method (with the 95% confidence interval) stratified by study, with a continuity

correction of 0.1 in the event of a null value. The relative risk estimates are presented as black squares on a (0.1–10) logarithmic scale (1 denotes no difference; values <1 and >1 denote a correspondingly lower and higher risk, respectively, associated with moxifloxacin treatment relative to the comparator), and the horizontal lines denote the confidence interval (limited to KPT-330 solubility dmso a maximum of 0.1 to 10 for reasons of legibility; lines that extend beyond these limits [or where the limits are masked by text] have an arrowhead symbol; when not visible, the lines is shorter than the corresponding symbol size). The light gray shaded area highlights the zone where the

relative risk estimate (moxifloxacin/comparator) is between 0.5 Phospholipase D1 and 2. ADR = adverse drug reaction; AE = adverse event; IV = intravenous; PO = oral; SADR = serious ADR; SAE = serious AE. Fig. 3 Relative risk estimates (moxifloxacin versus the comparator) for adverse events from pooled data on (a) patients with hepatic impairment, (b) patients with a cardiac disorder, and (c) patients with a body mass index <18 kg/m2. The data are stratified by route of administration (oral only; intravenous followed by oral [sequential]; intravenous only).The number of patients enrolled in each subgroup (moxifloxacin versus the comparator) is shown at the top of each graph, and the numbers of patients with each of the recorded events are shown to the left of the corresponding symbol.

“” Although it is recognized that perioperative prophylaxis is no

“” Although it is recognized that perioperative prophylaxis is not the only preventive measure for SSI, failure to apply other measures such as appropriate skin cleansing, scrubbing of operating room personnel, use of aseptic technique, mechanical bowel preparation, and avoidance of undo contamination subjects patients to complications and can negate the beneficial effects of prophylaxis. In addition, the increasing prevalence of minimally invasive surgical procedures, which are associated with a lower risk of SSI than open operations for the same conditions, may

also be impacting these observations [6]. We now understand that there are patient characteristics that also affect the risk of infection and can negate the beneficial effects of antimicrobial prophylaxis. These include glycemic control, tissue dessication,

hypothermia, obesity, smoking, immunosuppressive drugs, nutritional Selleck MLN4924 state, and local tissue hypoxemia. Addressing each of these contributors requires a well-coordinated, team-based approach in order to consistently optimize the strategy to prevent SSI. In spite of the complexity of this problem, there are other questions about perioperative prophylaxis that have not been adequately addressed. For instance, three of the most common pathogens for SSIs- Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and enterococci- are frequently resistant to currently recommended agents. Should we expect that prophylaxis that is not demonstrable in vitro will work in our patients? Patients frequently report a history of allergic reaction to beta-lactam drugs and as a result, secondary agents are used. The data for selection of these p38 MAPK inhibitors clinical trials agents are often based on expert opinion rather than class 1 or class 2 evidence [7]. Is it possible that our assumptions about their effectiveness are wrong? We know that the prevention of SSI also depends on delivery of an effective concentration of antibiotic to the site at risk for infection, in this case the surgical incision. With cephalosporins, tissue

concentrations Depsipeptide are often dependent on weight-based dosing and so adjustments need to be made for overweight and obese patients [8]. Do we know the compliance with this principle? There has been much progress made in surgery over the four decades since the benefits of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis were demonstrated in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. We now understand more about the complex interactions that affect SSI. We need to look to the challenges ahead and consider whether new principles need to be formulated. References 1. Polk HC Jr, Lopez-Mayor JF: Postoperative wound infection: a prospective study of determinant factors and prevention. Surg 1969, 66:97–103. 2. Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Surgical Infection Prevention Guideline Writers Workgroup: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Am J Surg 2005, 189:395–404.

Each trial contained 3 matches with a 1-hr rest between match 1 a

Each trial contained 3 matches with a 1-hr rest between match 1 and 2 and a 2-hr rest between match 2 and 3. A match contained 3 exercise periods lasting 2 minutes each with a work to rest ratio of 10 seconds: 20 seconds. After each exercise period, a 2 minute rest period was provided before the next exercise period. The load was 0.1 kp/kg body weight. The subjects were asked to pedal as fast as possible with vocal encouragement by research personnel. In the rest periods the load was removed and the subjects were asked to pedal at 60 rpm. The peak and average power of each sprint was recorded. Blood sample collection Blood samples were collected via an indwelled

cannula (20G). The cannula was frequent flushed by sterilized saline to keep it patent throughout the experiment. Ten milliliters of blood sample were collected into an EDTA tube at each sampling time. Hematological analysis was performed ABT-263 price immediately after the samples were taken. Thereafter, the rest samples were centrifuged at 1500 × g (Eppendorf 5810, Hamburg, Germany) to extract plasma. The aliquoted plasma samples were stored at -70°C

before analysis. Biochemical and hormone measurements The research personnel who conducted the analysis were blind to the group of the samples. Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit in whole blood was measured JPH203 chemical structure by a hematology analyzer (KX-21N, Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to correct for the change in plasma volume [27]. Plasma NOx concentration was measured with modified Griess reaction using a commercial kit (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). The absorbance at 540 nm was Cytidine deaminase measured with a microplate spectrophotometer (Benchmark Plus, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). Plasma concentrations of insulin were measured by electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) with the kit provided by the manufacturer. Plasma glucose, glycerol and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) were measured with an automatic analyzer (Hitachi 7020, Tokyo, Japan) using commercial kits (Randox, Antrim, UK). Statistical analysis All values were expressed as means ± SEMs. The area under

the curve (AUC) was calculated for plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, as well as total carbohydrate and fat oxidation, during the 2-hr recovery period after the second match. The changes in exercise performance, plasma concentrations of metabolites, and substrate oxidation rates were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. If the treatment or interaction effect was significant, the differences among the 3 trials at the same time point were identified by post hoc Bonferroni test. The AUC and total carbohydrate and fat oxidation were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. If the main effect was significant, the differences among the 3 trials were identified by post hoc Bonferroni test. The analysis was performed with SPSS for Windows 15.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).

94 18 31 03 0 01   II 13 3 8 82 10 17 24   III 60 30 88 24 30 51

94 18 31.03 0.01   II 13 3 8.82 10 17.24   III 60 30 88.24 30 51.72   IV 0 0 0 0 0 Differentiation   High 15 5 14.71 10 17.24 0.298   Moderate 35 12 35.29 23 39.66   Poorly 42 17 50.00 25 43.10 Histologic subtype   Serous cystadenocarcinoma

58 24 70.59 34 58.62 0.872   Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 8 4 11.76 4 6.90   Endometrioid carcinoma 4 1 2.94 3 5.17   Clear cell carcinoma 7 1 2.94 6 10.34   Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma 15 4 11.76 11 18.87 Drug resistance-related risk factors multivariate logistic regression analysis Multivariate logistic regression analysis Luminespib was used to investigate the relationship between age, clinical stage, differentiation, histologic subtype, and Lewis y antigen and integrin αvβ3 expression in ovarian cancer patients with ovarian cancer chemotherapy

resistance. The result showed that both the expression of Lewis y antigen and integrin αv and ovarian cancer’s clinical stage were independent, drug resistance-related risk factors, as shown in Table  4. Table 4 Drug resistance-related risk factors multivariate logistic regression analysis Factors B Sx P OR 95% CI Lewis y antigen −2.249 0.605 0.000 0.106 0.032 0.345 Integrin αv −0.968 0.415 0.020 0.380 0.168 0.857 Clinical stage −1.304 0.575 0.023 0.271 0.088 0.838 B: model parameter. Sx:

standard error of mean. P: P value. OR: odds ratio. In addition, immunofluorescence double-labeling RAS p21 protein activator 1 revealed that in ovarian cancer Lewis GSK2126458 y antigen (red fluorescence) was localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Integrin αv and β3 (green fluorescence) were mainly localized in the cell membrane, with a small amount of coloring in the cytoplasm. The 4,6-diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) (blue fluorescence) was used to visualize the nucleus. In three-channel synthesized images, the yellow fluorescence emerges from the area emitting both red and green fluorescence, indicating co-localization of Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3, as shown in Figure  2. Figure 2 Integrin αv, β3 and Lewis y colocalize in ovarian malignant tumor. Integrin αv and β3 (A and E); Lewis y (B and F); Nucleus (C and G); Merged image (D and H)( *400). Correlation analysis between expression of Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3 in ovarian cancer A similar trend was seen in the expression of Lewis y antigen, integrin αv, β3 in 92 patients with ovarian cancer, according to the results of immunohistochemistry. Both Lewis y antigen and integrin αvβ3 showed high expression in the ovarian cancer resistant group and their expression levels were positively correlated with each other (Tables  5, 6 Figure  1).

PCR cycling consisted of an initial denaturation at 94°C for 6 mi

PCR cycling consisted of an initial denaturation at 94°C for 6 min; followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, annealing at 57°C for 45 s, and extension at 72°C for 2 min; and a final extension at 72°C for 3 min. Amplified DNA was verified by electrophoresis on 2% agarose gels. Restriction digest The PCR products from the four replicates were pooled into two samples, purified with QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, Hilden, selleck inhibitor Germany), and finally eluted in a volume of 30 μl EB buffer (10 mM Tris, pH 8.5). Then 15 μl purified PCR product was digested overnight (or 3 hours) at 37°C with 0.02 U of Hha1 (Boehringer, Mannheim,

Germany) in a 20 μl reaction mixture. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism Each sample was analysed as two replicate fragments (T-RFs) by electrophoresis on an automatic sequence analyzer (ABI-PRISM-373-DNA-Sequencer; PE Biosystems, Foster City, California). Aliquots (2 μl) of T-RFs were mixed with

2 μl of deionized formamide, 0.4 μl of loading buffer (PE Biosystems), and 0.6 μl of DNA fragment length standard (MegaBace ET900, GE Healthcare, Hillerød, DK). The T-RF mixture was denatured at 94°C for 2 min and chilled on ice prior to electrophoresis. Five microliter aliquots of the mixture were loaded on a 36-cm, 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Electrophoresis settings were 2,500 V and 40 mA for 10 h, using the B filter set. Due to sequence species specific variations in the ribosomal gene, a restriction digest will give rise to T-RF

of different size, and when many species are mixed as in the intestinal microbiota this can be visualized as a pattern of peaks in an electropherogram, a fingerprint profile. These profiles were collected by the software and analysed by the use of BioNumerics software (Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium). The length of each band was determined by comparing it towards the internal standard to ladder. From each sample two replicates were compared, and weak bands that were only represented in one of the two were rejected to exclude false T-RFs from the fingerprint. After normalization of all profiles towards the internal standard, they were compared using BioNumerics. The comparisons between cages were based on calculating the Dice similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages for clustering. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to reflect the grouping and relatedness of samples. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal genes Samples (n = 10) from the same cage types (CC, FC, and AV), and sampling date (before inoculation and 4 weeks PI.), were pooled by mixing 250 ng of purified DNA from each sample in one tube, in total making up 6 samples.

Al vacancies, O interstitials, and H interstitials are proposed a

Al vacancies, O interstitials, and H interstitials are proposed as the reasons for the negative Q f of Al2O3[23, 24]. The measured Q f in Figure 3 and information on Al vacancies in Figure 7 were considered in analyzing the effect of Al selleck vacancy density

on the negative fixed charge Q f. With increased annealing temperature from 300°C to 500°C, the increase in Q f was opposite to the decrease in Al vacancy in the bulk film. Thus, Q f may not be related with Al vacancies in the Al2O3 films. The measured minimum effective lifetime in Figure 3 and S parameters of SiO x interface in Figure 7 were correlated, and the decrease in vacancy of SiO x was coincident with the enhanced chemical passivation at annealing temperatures lower than 500°C. However, the chemical passivation breakdown at 750°C cannot be explained: among the samples annealed at 300°C and 750°C, the chemical passivation at 750°C was the poorest, but the defect density at the interface region still decreased. The functions of interstitial atoms (O or H) near the interface require further investigation. Conclusions Q f did not significantly affect the passivation at a low annealing temperature (300°C). The interface trap density

markedly increased at a high annealing temperature (750°C) and failed at surface passivation even at a high Q f. Positron annihilation techniques were used to probe QNZ purchase the vacancy-type defects. A three-layered microstructure of thermal ALD Al2O3 films on Si substrate was found. The Al defect density in the bulk film and the vacancy density near the interface decreased with increased temperature based on the fitted S parameter at different positions in the Al2O3 films. The Al vacancy of the bulk film was not related to Q f based on the Q f measurement results. The effects of interstitial atoms on Q f need further investigation. The defect density in the SiO x region may affect chemical passivation, but other factors enough may also influence chemical passivation particularly beyond 500°C. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the National

High Technology Research and Development Program of China (grant no. 2011AA050515) and the National Basic Research Program of China (grant no. 2012CB934204). The authors are grateful to Dr. Cao for the DBAR measurements at the Beijing Slow Positron Beam, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. References 1. Schmidt J, Werner F, Veith B, Zielke D, Bock D, Brendel R, Tiba V, Poodt P, Roozeboom F, Li A, Cuevas A: Surface passivation of silicon solar cells using industrially relevant Al 2 O 3 deposition techniques. Photovoltaics Int 2010, 10:42–48. 2. Rothschild A, Vermang B, Goverde H: Atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 for industrial local Al back-surface field (BSF) solar cells. Photovoltaics Int 2011, 13:92–101. 3. Schmidt J, Merkle A, Brendel R, Hoex B, van de Sanden MCM, Kessels WMM: Surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells by atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 .

In this case, an Ag NW approximately 30 nm in diameter was aligne

In this case, an Ag NW approximately 30 nm in diameter was aligned across two gold electrodes that had been patterned on an insulating layer of silicon oxide. The current (I) was measured while different DC potentials (V) were applied to these gold ABT-263 electrodes. An electrical conductivity of approximately 0.3 × 105 S/cm was calculated from the linear I-V curve. Additionally,

the 2-D film structures consisting of the Ag NW networks (fabricated by the abovementioned process, as shown in Figure 5) exhibited a sheet resistance as low as 20 Ω/sq with a transmittance of 93% (the sheet resistance of the Ag NW films was measured using the four-probe method). These sheet resistance value and transparency nearly match the properties of ITO films. In particular, the optical properties (transmittance and haze) in the Ag NW network structure are directly related to the diameter size of the Ag NWs. The light transmittance difference of the as-cast Ag NW films with diameters of 30 ± 3 nm and 45 ± 5 nm is shown in Figure 6I. The 2-D Ag NW film formed by a network of wires of 30 ± 3 nm in diameter was at least 3% or more transparent than the film-containing wires of 45 ± 5 nm in diameter, when both films were tested under similar sheet resistance conditions (approximately

20 Ω/sq). LCL161 in vitro Furthermore, the Ag NW film-containing wires of 30 ± 3 nm in diameter consistently exhibited a lower sheet

resistance than the film-containing wires that were 45 ± 5 nm in diameter with a similar transparency with respect to the film thickness or density, as shown in Figure 6II. In contrast, for the same sheet resistance value, the light transmittance of the Ag NW film of 30 ± 3 nm in diameter was at least 5% or more than that of the Ag NW film of 45 ± 3 nm in diameter. This difference of 5% transmittance is attributed to size effects. Overall, it is clear that the transmittance of the Ag NW film containing small-diameter NWs improved more than that of the film containing large-diameter NWs, due to the low intensity of scattered light. However, the 2-D Ag NW films formed Dipeptidyl peptidase by a network of NWs with a diameter of 30 ± 3 nm were sufficiently transparent comparable to ITO. In Figure 6III, the difference of haze value between Ag NW films with diameters of 30 ± 3 nm and 45 ± 5 nm is shown as a function of sheet resistance. The haze value of the 30-nm-diameter wires was at least 1% or less than that of the 45-nm diameter wires, as shown in Figure 6III. In general, the haze value is known to be directly related to the size of the Ag NWs concerned with scattered light, which directly impacts their optical properties. Figure 6 Light transmittance spectra, changes of optical transmittance, and haze value.

Trauma is medicine practiced by teams/groups of health profession

Trauma is medicine practiced by teams/groups of health professionals. The field of trauma extends from injury prevention to trauma systems, from pre-hospital care to rehabilitation with lots in between including several hospital-based professionals (i.e. nurses, surgeons, anesthetists, intensivists, technologists, physiotherapists and others).

As trauma evolves and the necessity to become more structured and organized is recognized by countries across the world, the importance of local Trauma Associations has been rediscovered. In turn, as the local/national Trauma Associations become stronger and more relevant to their communities R788 research buy and countries, they also see the value of participating in multinational Associations. This process has resulted in the resurgence of the Panamerican Trauma Society in the Americas, the creation in Europe of the European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES) and the proliferation of international education

programs by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Now in 2012, these national and multinational associations will gather under the umbrella of the first World Trauma Congress. ABT-888 concentration The goal of having a truly World Trauma Congress that represents all the aspirations of all Trauma Associations of the world will only be partially fulfilled in August. But the meeting shows that the trauma world is capable of getting together, sharing knowledge and working together to improve trauma care everywhere. One of the highlights of the World Trauma Congress is 2 separate scientific Journal supplements. All participants

of the World Trauma Congress were invited to submit full manuscripts to these supplements and 11 were selected by peer-reviewed process for the present supplement. These manuscripts address many of the most important topics in trauma in the world today such as deaths due to motorcycle crashes. While rich countries appear primarily concerned about fossil fuel cost to move their large fleet and its ecological impact, developing nations are experiencing epidemic proportions of death related to the growing numbers of small and economical motorcycles [1]. The cost to purchase and maintain a motorcycle is Clomifene low, which makes it attractive to developing and poor nations where citizens also lack resources to purchase safety equipment and the state does not provide adequate roads or traffic law enforcement. The final result is an alarming and continuously growing number of deaths associated to motorcycle in Latin America and Asia, where full hospital wards care for hundreds of invalid survivors. Motorcycle crash was also the mechanism of injury most frequently described in another manuscript on the non-operative management of high grade (grade IV) hepatic also included in this supplement [2].

No suggestions,

pressure or duress were placed on the inv

No suggestions,

pressure or duress were placed on the investigatory team whatsoever. Authors’ contributions All authors BIX 1294 solubility dmso were involved in the study. JDR was principal researcher, involved with liason with the company, participant screening, beverage assignment, data collection, statistical analysis and report generation; MDT was co-researcher involved with cohort organization, data collection and blood analyses, confirmation of statistical analyses, and helped to draft the manuscript; LSK was involved with monitoring of data collection including collation of performance data, and test beverage administration, as well as overview and editing of manuscript; MGR was involved in quality control, part data collection, and technical accuracy in preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Glutamine ingestion during acute dehydration stress is reported to enhance fluid and electrolyte absorption resulting from intestinal disorders [1–3], but it’s effects may not be consistent [4]. This is possibly related to stability issues of glutamine in the gut. However, GDC-0449 research buy when glutamine

is combined with alanine the ability to enhance electrolyte and fluid absorption appears to be greater than glutamine alone, likely via a combination of greater stability and an enhanced rate of absorption via specific ion transporters within intestinal epithelia [5]. In addition, the greater stability of

the alanine-glutamine dipeptide appears to be quite evident at a low pH Bay 11-7085 [6]. This could have important implications for athletes during competition. Recently, acute ingestion of an alanine-glutamine dipeptide (AG) was reported to enhance fluid uptake and reduce the magnitude of performance decrement during exercise to exhaustion under hypohydrated conditions [7]. Furthermore, the alanine-glutamine dipeptide was shown to be significantly more effective than water alone. This has important implications during athletic performance, where dehydration can play a critical role in the outcome of a contest. For instance, a significant performance decrement has been shown with hypohydration levels of only 2% in basketball players [8, 9]. This level of hypohydration has been shown to decrease field goal percentage in basketball players by 8%, clearly affecting the potential outcome of a game. Considering that a thirst sensation may not appear until this level of hypohydration has already been reached [10], it becomes critical for athletes to rehydrate even when they do not feel the need to drink. Furthermore, rehydration does appear to be a major issue among basketball players. Nearly half of professional basketball players assessed prior to competitive games were found to be dehydrated prior to the onset of a basketball game, and that fluid intake during the games was not able to compensate for the pregame hypohydration [11].