Figure IWP-2 3 SEM cross-sectional view and XRD pattern of the Co nanowire/InP membrane composite. (a) SEM cross-sectional view on the Co nanowires/InP membrane composite; inset, SEM top view on the unfilled membrane. (b) XRD pattern of the Co nanowire/InP membrane composite. Magnetic characterization
In general, it is decisive that the magnetization in the magnetic material is aligned perpendicular to the applied magnetic field for an optimal magnetostrictive effect, e.g., if the magnetization in the magnetic material is parallel to applied field, the magnetostrictive effect is zero. Another important factor for the application as magnetoelectric sensor is a small hysteresis loop, since magnetic AC fields shall be measured. The magnetic properties of the Co nanowires/InP membrane composite are characterized by angular-dependent measurements of the hysteresis loops.
The hysteresis ATR inhibitor loops are measured under various angles α between the external magnetic field H and the long Staurosporine solubility dmso nanowire axis z starting from α = 0° (H || z) to α = 90° (H ⊥ z). The detailed view of the axis intercepts are given in the inset of Figure 4a. The hysteresis loops are narrow and show a distinct, but not pronounced, angular dependence. With increasing angle α, a tilting of the hysteresis loops is observed. From these hysteresis loops, the remanence squareness S, the coercivity H C, and the differential normalized susceptibility χ norm are extracted. The small oscillations in the hysteresis loops are measurement artifacts occurring at elevated sweep rates of the magnetic fields. Figure 4 Angular dependent hysteresis loops and magnetic properties of the Co nanowire/InP composite. (a) Angular-dependent normalized hysteresis loops of the Co nanowires/InP
membrane composite obtained by VSM measurement from α = 0° (H || z) to α = 90° (H ⊥ z); inset, high magnification of the hysteresis loops around m/m s = 0. (b) Angular dependence of the remanence squareness S and the coercivity H C. (c) Angular dependence of the differential susceptibility of the Co nanowires/InP membrane obtained by VSM measurement at α = 0° (H || z) to α = 90° (H ⊥ z). The angular dependence of the remanence squareness is extracted PAK5 from the measured hysteresis loops. It is depicted in Figure 4b. From α = 0° to α = 60°, the remanence squareness is rather constant with a value of around 0.07 and reduces slightly to about 0.06 with further increasing angle α. From these data, the easy magnetization direction of the Co nanowires cannot be clearly identified. Therefore, minor hysteresis loops with a field amplitude H a between 20 Oe and 1 kOe are performed for α = 0° and α = 90° being shown in Figure 5a and b. The minor hysteresis loops for α = 0° and α = 90° show differences in the following three parameters, hysteresis loss and maximum normalized magnetization m a/m s and the slope of the minor loops for very small H a.