Because many landscapes have been fragmented by roads, agriculture, and habitation, truly restoring even a low-intensity understory fire regime across the landscape that burns with varying intensity and leaves behind a mosaic of conditions (e.g., Turner, 2010) would be difficult because most forests have too many roads and too much suppression activity to allow for Selleck Wortmannin truly natural fire regimes
at the landscape-scale (Covington et al., 1997 and Phillips et al., 2012). Restoring fire regimes usually involves treatments to reduce fuels to levels where prescribed burning can be safely conducted (Brose et al., 1999, Fulé et al., 2001, Baker and Shinneman, 2004, McIver et al., 2012 and McCaw and Lachlan, 2013). The objective is to increase fire resilience by reducing surface fuels, increasing height to live crown, decreasing crown density, and retaining large
trees or introducing seedlings of resistant species (Brown et al., 2004). Collectively these measures reduce flame length and lower the risk of crown fires; the lower intensity fires that occur should produce the lowest carbon loss. On one hand, this may be accomplished solely with prescribed burning at ecologically appropriate intervals if fuel p38 MAPK inhibitor conditions allow. On the other hand, it may be necessary to reduce stem density, especially of small diameter stems in Chloroambucil overly dense stands, through mechanical means, followed by re-introduction of fire. The resulting low intensity fire regime may depart from historic conditions, especially on non-production and conservation forests if required to maintain essential habitat or otherwise protect important values (Brown et al., 2004) and with regard
to future climatic conditions (Fulé, 2008). In stands with large accumulations of fuels, the restoration process may require multiple interventions over several years; problems that develop over decades cannot usually be solved with a single treatment. For example, in pine forests in the southern USA (e.g., Fig. 16), fire exclusion and continued litterfall allowed the duff layer to accumulate to as much as three times the level under normal fire return intervals (McNab et al., 1978). An incorrect prescribed fire under these conditions will ignite the duff layer and cause excessive smoke and overstory mortality (Varner et al., 2005 and O’Brien et al., 2010). Depending on site conditions, effective restoration treatments may include some combination of reducing dense understory or midstory stems by mechanical or chemical means, conducting multiple low-intensity prescribed burns for several seasons to reduce fine fuel accumulation, planting ecologically appropriate herbaceous and graminoid species, or converting the overstory to more fire-adapted species (Mulligan et al., 2002 and Hubbard et al., 2004).