These data show that symptom guided followup examinations may pro

These data show that symptom guided followup examinations may provide similar results at lower cost.”
“Background: Inhalational anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is associated with high mortality primarily due to toxin-mediated injury. Raxibacumab is a human IgG1(lamda) monoclonal Sapanisertib in vivo antibody directed against protective antigen, a component of the anthrax toxin.

Methods: We evaluated the efficacy of raxibacumab as a prophylactic agent and after disease onset in a total of four randomized, placebo-controlled studies conducted in rabbits and monkeys. Animals were exposed to an aerosolized target exposure of B. anthracis spores that

was approximately 100 times (in the prophylactic studies) and 200 times (in the therapeutic-intervention studies) the median lethal dose. In the therapeutic-intervention studies, animals were monitored for the onset of symptoms. Animals with detectable protective antigen in serum, a significant increase in temperature, or both received a single intravenous bolus of placebo or raxibacumab at a dose of either 20 mg per kilogram of body weight

or 40 mg per kilogram. The primary end point was survival at day 14 (in rabbits) or at day 28 (in monkeys). Safety studies were conducted with intravenous raxibacumab (40 mg per kilogram) in 333 healthy human volunteers.

Results: In both rabbits and monkeys, the time to detection of protective antigen correlated with the time to bacteremia (r=0.9, P<0.001). In the SNX-5422 research buy therapeutic-intervention

studies, the survival rate was significantly higher among rabbits that received raxibacumab at a dose of 40 mg per kilogram (44% [8 of 18]) than among rabbits that received placebo (0% [0 of 18]; P=0.003). Raxibacumab treatment also significantly increased survival in monkeys (64% [9 of 14], vs. 0% [0 of 12] with placebo; P<0.001). In human subjects, intravenous raxibacumab at a dose of 40 mg per kilogram had a half-life of 20 to 22 days and provided a maximum concentration of the drug in excess of levels that are protective in animals. Concentrations of raxibacumab provide a surrogate end point that should be predictive of clinical benefit.

Conclusions: A single dose of raxibacumab improved survival in rabbits and monkeys with symptomatic inhalational anthrax. ( number, NCT00639678.)

N Engl J Med 2009;361:135-44.”
“Purpose: We evaluated the long-term outcome of simultaneous transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder tumor and bladder outlet obstruction.

Materials and Methods: Between April 1997 and April 2006, 213 patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder tumor who had a minimum followup of 24 months were included in the study, including group 1-107 with transurethral resection of bladder tumor only and group 2-106 with transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection.

Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE Inflamma

Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Tbeta4 treatment group compared to the saline groups (3.6+/-0.3/slide vs 5+/-0.5/slide, P<0.05). NG2(+) OPCs (447.7+/-41.9 vs 195.2+/-31/mm(2) in subventricular zone (SVZ), 75.1+/-4.7 vs 41.7+/-0.2/mm(2)

Osimertinib clinical trial in white matter), CNPase(+) mature oligodendrocytes (267.5+/-10.3 vs 141.4+/- 22.9/mm(2)), BrdU(+) with NG2(+) OPCs (32.9+/-3.7 vs 17.9+/-3.6/mm(2)), BrdU(+) with CNPase+ mature oligodendrocytes (18.2+/- 1.7 vs 10.7+/-2.2/mm(2)) were significantly increased in the Tbeta4 treated mice compared to those of saline controls (P<0.05). These data indicate that Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways

can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute kidney injury.”
“In addition to nigrostriatal pathology and corresponding motor disturbances, Parkinson’s Telomerase disease (PD) is often characterized by Dactolisib supplier co-morbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, most notably anxiety and depression. Separate lines of evidence indicate that inflammatory processes associated with microglial activation and cytokine release may be fundamental to the progression of both PD and its co-morbid psychiatric pathology. Accordingly, we assessed the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), to a range of PD-like pathology provoked by the ecologically relevant herbicide and dopamine (DA) toxin, paraquat. To this end, paraquat provoked overt motor impairment (reduced home-cage activity

and impaired vertical climbing) and signs of anxiety-like behavior (reduced open field exploration) in wild-type but not IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Correspondingly, paraquat promoted somewhat divergent variations in neurochemical activity among wild-type and IFN-gamma null mice at brain sites important for both motor (striatum) and co-morbid affective pathologies (dorsal hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and locus coeruleus). Specifically, the herbicide provoked a dosing regimen-dependent reduction in striatal DA levels that was prevented by IFN-gamma deficiency. In addition, the herbicide influenced serotonergic and noradrenergic activity within the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex; and elevated noradrenergic activity within the locus coeruleus.

Depletion of the related factor eIF4B did not affect Vhs activity

Depletion of the related factor eIF4B did not affect Vhs activity. The data suggest that eIF4H binding is required for Vhs-induced degradation of many mRNAs, perhaps by targeting Vhs to mRNAs and to preferred sites within mRNAs.”
“OBJECTIVE: The role of additional or revision surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)

is challenging. Postoperative pseudoarthrosis, instability, hardware failure, and recurrent cervical stenosis are conditions that require detailed clinical and radiographic assessment to define the pathology and assess the need for surgical decompression and fusion. The purpose of this study is to assess the neurological MM-102 research buy outcome, radiological outcome, and complications of patients undergoing additional or revision surgery for CSM.

METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, 30 patients with CSM and postoperative pseudoarthrosis, instability, hardware failure, or recurrent stenosis underwent surgical decompression and stabilization. The specific procedure was selected according to each patient’s medical condition, cervical sagittal alignment, and extent of stenosis. All patients underwent an anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior decompression and instrumented fusion. The charts of these patients were reviewed to assess neurological and radiographic outcomes.

RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (83%) improved postoperatively as

measured by the Nurick Myelopathy Scale over a mean follow-up period of 19 months (range, 2-64 mo). The overall complication rate was 27%, consisting Pictilisib of transient monoradiculopathy (7%), dysphagia (10%), and infection (7%). The incidence of nonunion during the follow-up period was 3%.

CONCLUSION: Although patients with

CSM and postoperative pseudoarthrosis, instability, hardware failure, or junctional stenosis who require revision surgery may risk a substantial likelihood of surgical complications (25% in this series), a significant proportion of patients may experience improved neurological outcomes. In our experience, the cervical sagittal alignment and the extent of stenosis are critical factors to consider when selecting the eventual procedure.”
“Human noroviruses cause more than 90% of epidemic nonbacterial Amobarbital gastroenteritis. However, the role of B cells and antibody in the immune response to noroviruses is unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that human norovirus specific antibody levels increase upon infection, but they may not be protective against infection. In this report, we used murine norovirus (MNV), an enteric norovirus, as a model to determine the importance of norovirus specific B cells and immune antibody in clearance of norovirus infection. We show here that mice genetically deficient in B cells failed to clear primary MNV infection as effectively as wild-type mice.

Ipsilateral central venous occlusions were successfully overcome

Ipsilateral central venous occlusions were successfully overcome by anastomosing a HeRO device to the existing AV access and tunneled across the chest to the contralateral internal jugular vein. (J Vasc Surg 2012;56:1127-9.)”

In September 2012, the World Health Organization reported the first

cases of pneumonia caused by the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We describe a cluster of health care-acquired MERS-CoV infections.


Medical records were reviewed for clinical and demographic information and determination of potential contacts and exposures. Case patients and contacts were interviewed. Blasticidin S price The incubation period and serial interval (the

time between the successive onset of symptoms in a chain of transmission) were estimated. Viral RNA was sequenced.


Between April 1 and May 23, 2013, a total of 23 cases click here of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Symptoms included fever in 20 patients (87%), cough in 20 (87%), shortness of breath in 11 (48%), and gastrointestinal symptoms in 8 (35%); 20 patients (87%) presented with abnormal chest radiographs. As of June 12, a total of 15 patients (65%) had died, 6 (26%) had recovered, and 2 (9%) remained hospitalized. The median incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 14.7), and the serial interval

was 7.6 days (95% CI, 2.5 to 23.1). A total of 21 of the 23 cases were acquired by person-to-person transmission in hemodialysis units, intensive care units, or in-patient units in three different health care facilities. Sequencing data from four isolates revealed a single triclocarban monophyletic clade. Among 217 household contacts and more than 200 health care worker contacts whom we identified, MERS-CoV infection developed in 5 family members (3 with laboratory-confirmed cases) and in 2 health care workers (both with laboratory-confirmed cases).


Person-to-person transmission of MERS-CoV can occur in health care settings and may be associated with considerable morbidity. Surveillance and infection-control measures are critical to a global public health response.”
“Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine, glutamate, and glycine.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“The activity a

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The activity and subunit amounts of V-ATPase and V-PPase in various plants of Butea monosperma Taub. (Fabaceae) (ver. Dhak; Palas) growing as a natural inhabitant in varying stress selleck chemical conditions in southeast Rajasthan were studied. Western blot analysis followed by immunological

quantification of V-ATPase subunits using specific polyclonal antibodies showed that the subunits A, B, D, E, and c are clearly detectable in all plants, with A, B, and c appearing as intense bands. The other subunits of V-ATPase, viz., C, a, and d, were also detected in majority of the plants. Various subunits exhibited variations in their protein amount in different plants. Besides, a few other clear bands were also detected. Of these, the 30- and 29-kD bands

may possibly be Di and Ei. Furthermore, a clear band of V-PPase corresponding to 67-70 kD was also detected. A comparison of the V-ATPase and V-PPase activity revealed that Butea plants in the upper region of the study site showed 70% and 39% higher activity, respectively. Furthermore, the immunological quantification showed that the V-ATPase and V-PPase MG-132 protein amounts are also higher in the upper Butea plants which have drought stress and, moreover, are also exposed to stronger light intensities for relatively longer duration.”
“This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner

using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans O-methylated flavonoid were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (beta: 127.5 mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: beta: 21230.0 mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: beta: 11976.0 mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Abiotic stresses, especially salinity and drought, are major limiting factors for plant growth and crop productivity.

Results: Among the 22 antibodies,

the C-7 antibody signif

Results: Among the 22 antibodies,

the C-7 antibody significantly inhibited endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) but not to histamine. Moreover, the C-7 antibody did not affect norepinephrine-induced contraction in either the endothelium-intact or- denuded aorta. A proteomics study involving immunoprecipitation of the C-7 antibody with biotinylated HUVECs showed that this antibody binds to plasma membrane proteins corresponding to immunoglobulin heavy chain (VHDJ region), chaperonin-containing T-complex polypeptide 1 and alpha-actinin 4. The muscarinic M3 ACh receptor and alpha-actinin 4 were colocalized on the plasma membrane of HUVECs, and the colocalization was found to increase GW786034 in response to ACh and was inhibited by pretreatment with the C-7 antibody. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that monoclonal C-7 antibody exerts an inhibitory CCI-779 effect on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by ACh and that this response may at least partially result from the inhibition of a-actinin 4. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”

(cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein [CTLA-4-Ig]) is a costimulatory inhibitor that targets B7-1 (CD80). The present report describes five patients who had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (four with recurrent FSGS after transplantation and one with Vasopressin Receptor primary FSGS) and proteinuria with B7-1 immunostaining of podocytes in kidney-biopsy specimens. Abatacept induced partial or complete remissions of proteinuria in these patients, suggesting that B7-1 may be a useful biomarker for the treatment of some glomerulopathies. Our data indicate that abatacept may stabilize 1-integrin activation in podocytes and reduce proteinuria in patients with B7-1-positive glomerular disease.”
“Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

is a non-invasive technique used in the treatment of major depression. Meta-analyses have shown that it is more efficient than a placebo and that its efficacy is enhanced by the optimum tuning of stimulation parameters. However, the stimulation target, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is still located using an inaccurate method. In this study, a neuronavigation system was used to perform a comprehensive quantification of target localization errors. We identified and quantified 3 sources of error in the standard method: cap repositioning, interexpert variability in coil positioning and distance between the stimulated point and the expected target. For cap repositioning, the standard deviation was lower than 5 mm in the 3 axes. For interexpert variability in coil positioning, the spatial dispersion of the points was higher than 10 mm in 2 of the 3 axes.

Phase 11 comprised 688 women and 335 men

Results 111

Phase 11 comprised 688 women and 335 men.

Results. 111 36 men and seven women, at least one occluded ulnar artery was found. The estimated prevalence was 9.6% ill men and 1.0% in women (P < .001). The occluded artery was more often in the dominant hand of both men (8.1% vs 2.4%; P < .001) and women (0.9% vs 0.4%; P = .34). Ulnar artery occlusion was found more often in men aged >50 years (16.4%) than in younger men (1.4%; P < .001). Besides age, male sex, and dominant side, the only, independent

risk factor was an SP600125 clinical trial occupational exposure in men to repeated palmar trauma, with a significant quantitative relationship in the frequency of the impacts (P < .001) and the duration of the exposure (P < .001). Exposures to hand-field vibrating tools and cigarette smoking did not show a significant relationship in the multivariate analysis. Most

individuals with ulnar artery occlusion did not have associated complaints; however, the diagnostic criteria for Raynaud phenomenon was validated in 13 of the 36 affected men. The association remained significant after adjusting for occupational exposure to vibrating tools. One individual reported I previous episode consistent with ail attack of permanent digital ischemia.

Conclusion: This study confirms a substantial prevalence of ulnar artery Occlusions ill the general population, mostly ill middle-aged and elderly men, which appears to be principally related

PRKD3 this website to ail occupational exposure to repeated occupational palmar trauma. Although there is a significant association with Raynaud phenomenon, most often the consequences of this occlusion remain subclinical. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1333-9.)”
“Glycogen, which serves as a major energy reserve in cells, is a large, branched polymer of glucose molecules. We describe a patient who had muscle weakness, associated with the depletion of glycogen in skeletal muscle, and cardiac arrhythmia, associated with the accumulation of abnormal storage material in the heart. The skeletal muscle showed a marked predominance of slow-twitch, oxidative muscle fibers and mitochondrial proliferation. Western blotting showed the presence of unglucosylated glycogenin-1 in the muscle and heart. Sequencing of the glycogenin-1 gene, GYG1, revealed a nonsense mutation in one allele and a missense mutation, Thr83Met, in the other. The missense mutation resulted in inactivation of the autoglucosylation of glycogenin-1 that is necessary for the priming of glycogen synthesis in muscle.”
“Objective: In 1994, our hospital reported a significant gender disparity in the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The objective of this study was to determine if this gender-based treatment disparity still persists after 15 years.


Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal f

Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioural and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls.

However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Autologous Saracatinib solubility dmso mesenchymal stern cells (MSCs) have been proven safe in phase I and II clinical trials in patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction. However, their potential for proliferation and differentiation decreases with age, which limits their efficacy in elderly patients. Allogeneic MSCs offer several key advantages over autologous MSCs, including a high regenerative potential and availability for clinical use without the delay required for expansion. It was believed

that allogeneic MSCs were immune privileged and thus able to escape the recipient’s immune system. In see more several preclinical studies, allogeneic MSCs were successful in regenerating the myocardium, and the transplanted MSCs improved heart function early after implantation. However, the long-term ability

of allogeneic MSCs to preserve heart function is limited because of a transition from an immune privileged to an immunogenic phenotype after the cells differentiate. The initial phase I/II clinical study using allogeneic MSCs in patients with acute myocardial infarction was safe, and no side effects were observed. However, the long-term safety and efficacy below of allogeneic MSCs remain to be established. In this review, we discuss the challenges of using allogeneic MSCs for cardiac repair and present strategies to prevent the immune rejection of allogeneic MSCs to increase their potential for use in cardiac patients. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2010;20:263-268) (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) from the HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C species use encoded proteases, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro), to process their polyproteins and shut off host cell activities detrimental to virus replication. Reactions attributed to 2A(pro) include cleavage of eIF4G-I and -II to inhibit cellular mRNA translation and cleavage of select nucleoporin proteins (Nups) within nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to disrupt karyopherin-dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic transport and signaling.

Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were

Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at

later maturity stages.”
“Our previous study revealed that resveratrol blocks prion protein peptide PrP(106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection in prion diseases is not clear. Resverstrol initiates neuroprotective effects via the activation Ro 61-8048 in vivo SP600125 manufacturer of autophagy, which protects organelles, cells, and organisms against misfolded protein-disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease via regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, we focused on elucidating the mechanisms responsible for resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection related to mitochondria, homeostasis as a result of autophagy activation. Resveratrol prevented PrP(106-126)-induced neuronal cell death by activating autophagy. Moreover, resveratrol-induced autophagy prevented the PrP(106-126)-induced reduction in mitochondrial potential and translocation of Bax to the mitochondria

and cytochrome c release. Our results indicate that treatment with resveratrol appears to protect against neurotoxicity caused by prion protein peptides and the neuroprotection is induced by resveratrol-mediated autophagy signals. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and

the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“The therapeutic potential of autophagy for the treatment cancer and other diseases is beset by paradoxes stemming from the complexity of the interactions between the apoptotic and autophagic machinery. The simplest question of how autophagy acts as both a protector and executioner of cell death remains the subject of substantial controversy. Elucidating the molecular interactions between the processes will help us understand how autophagy can modulate cell death, whether autophagy is truly a cell death mechanism, and how these functions are regulated. We suggest that, despite many connections between autophagy and PRKD3 apoptosis, a strong causal relationship wherein one process controls the other, has not been demonstrated adequately. Knowing when and how to modulate autophagy therapeutically depends on understanding these connections.”
“Nonstructural protein sigma 1s is a critical determinant of hematogenous dissemination by type 1 reoviruses, which reach the central nervous system (CNS) by a strictly blood-borne route. However, it is not known whether sigma 1s contributes to neuropathogenesis of type 3 reoviruses, which disseminate by both vascular and neural pathways.

MDA-associated Amplification bias has been improved for eukaryoti

MDA-associated Amplification bias has been improved for eukaryotic cells using a technique called MALBAC [32], but these improvements have yet to be shown for prokaryotic genomes and still rely on random, or morphologically based, cell sorting. Such random sorting of single microbial cells from complex mixtures is expected to learn more bias against rare species and may require sorting and find more sequencing of hundreds to thousands

of cells before a rare genome can be obtained. Increased input template number can overcome MDA amplification bias, or difficulties in processing and sorting single cells from biofilms, and provide near complete genome coverage. Potential methods for accomplishing this include inducing artificial polyploidy or using gel microdroplets [24, 33]. However, in both of these cases, rare species may still be missed if sufficient GSK1838705A ic50 numbers of single cells cannot be sorted. This has been partially addressed in a recently published “mini-metagenomics” approach. MDA product coverage was improved by creating bacterial pools by flow cytometry, with ~100 bacteria in each pool. Screening of these pools for 16S rDNA sequences of the bacterial species of interest, followed by deep sequencing of the positive pools, allowed assembly of a relatively complete

genome from different pools containing the same 16S RNA sequences [34]. An alternative approach to simultaneously address both amplification bias and isolate rare species is to use antibodies recognizing specific microorganisms within microbial communities to enrich and/or subtract bacterial species prior to sequencing.

We hypothesized that enrichment by selective sorting in this way could provide a powerful method for significantly increasing input template number to obtain complete genomes of low abundance species, akin to creating a small microbiome in which all members expressed a single target recognized by the antibody of interest. In the present work, we developed a selection and screening pipeline using phage display and flow cytometry to isolate a single chain Fv (scFv) antibody that can: i) identify MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit a bacterial species, Lactobacillus acidophilus, with extreme specificity; and ii) be applied to a microbiome, using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), to identify, enrich, and deplete targeted species from bacterial mixtures. We further demonstrated that if this approach was applied to a mock community containing L. acidophilus, rather than the pure single species, antibodies recognizing L. acidophilus could be isolated. This phage display selection method is highly adaptable to recognition of any organism and provides a unique tool for dissection and sequencing of rare species from complex microbiomes. Results Selection against intact bacteria using phage display and screening by flow cytometry We chose the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a target for our approach. Lactobacilli such as sp.