First, oxysterols are already present in fresh semen samples, sho

First, oxysterols are already present in fresh semen samples, showing that lipid peroxidation is part of normal sperm physiology. After chromatographic separation (by high-performance liquid chromatography), the detected oxysterol species were identified with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode that enabled detection in a broad and linear concentration range (0.05-100 pmol for MK-2206 price each oxysterol species detected). Second, exposure of living sperm cells to oxidative stress does not result in the same level and composition of oxysterol species compared with oxidative stress imposed on reconstituted vesicles from

protein-free sperm lipid extracts. This suggests that living sperm cells protect themselves against elevated oxysterol formation. Third, sperm capacitation induces the formation of oxysterols, and these formed oxysterols are almost completely depleted from the sperm surface by albumin. Fourth, and most importantly, capacitation after freezing/thawing of sperm fails to induce both the formation of oxysterols and the subsequent albumin-dependent depletion of oxysterols from the sperm surface. The possible physiological relevance of capacitation-dependent

oxysterol formation and depletion at the sperm surface as well as the omission of this after freezing/thawing semen is discussed.”
“Background: Risk stratification schemes assessing stroke and thromboembolism (stroke/TE) and bleeding relating to atrial fibrillation (AF) have largely been derived and validated in Western populations. We assessed risk factors that constitute scores for assessing stroke/TE (CHADS(2), CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc) and bleeding (HAS-BLED), and the predictive value of these scores in a large cohort of Chinese patients with AF.\n\nMethods

and results: We studied 1034 AF patients (27.1% female, median age 75; 85.6% non-anticoagulated) with mean follow-up of 1.9 years. On multivariate analysis, vascular disease was independently associated with stroke/TE in non-anticoagulated patients (p=0.04). In patients with a CHADS(2) or CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score=1, the rate of stroke/TE was 2.9% and 0.9% respectively, but in patients at “high risk” (scores >= 2), this rate was 4.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The c-statistics for predicting stroke/TE with CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc were 0.58 (p=0.109) and 0.72 (p<0.001), respectively. Compared to CHADS(2), the use of CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc would result in a Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) of 16.6% (p=0.009) and an Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) of 1.1% (p=0.002). Cumulative survival of the patients with a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >= 2 was decreased compared to those with a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score 0-1 (p<0.001), but the CHADS(2) was not predictive of mortality. There was an increased risk of major bleeding with increasing HAS-BLED score (c-statistic 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51-0.71, p=0.042).

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