Because many 7-transmembrane and growth factor receptors promote atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that the multifunctional adaptor proteins beta-arrestin1 and -2 might regulate this
pathological process. Deficiency of beta-arrestin2 in ldlr(-/-) mice reduced aortic atherosclerosis by 40% and decreased the prevalence of atheroma SMCs by 35%, suggesting that beta-arrestin2 promotes atherosclerosis through effects on SMCs. To test this potential atherogenic mechanism more specifically, we performed carotid endothelial BAY 57-1293 clinical trial denudation in congenic wild-type, beta-arrestin1(-/-), and beta-arrestin2(-/-) mice. Neointimal hyperplasia was enhanced in beta-arrestin1(-/-) mice, and diminished in beta-arrestin2(-/-) mice. Neointimal cells expressed SMC markers and did not derive from bone marrow progenitors, as demonstrated by bone marrow transplantation with green CA3 purchase fluorescent protein-transgenic cells. Moreover, the reduction in neointimal hyperplasia seen in beta-arrestin2(-/-) mice was not altered by transplantation with either wild-type or beta-arrestin2(-/-) bone marrow cells. After carotid injury, medial SMC extracellular
signal-regulated kinase activation and proliferation were increased in beta-arrestin1(-/-) and decreased in beta-arrestin2(-/-) mice. Concordantly, thymidine incorporation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and migration evoked by 7-transmembrane receptors were greater than wild type in beta-arrestin1(-/-) SMCs and less in beta-arrestin2(-/-)
SMCs. Proliferation was less than wild type in beta-arrestin2(-/-) SMCs but not in beta-arrestin2(-/-) endothelial cells. We conclude that beta-arrestin2 aggravates atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving SMC proliferation and migration and that these SMC activities are regulated reciprocally by beta-arrestin2 and beta-arrestin1. These findings identify inhibition of learn more beta-arrestin2 as a novel therapeutic strategy for combating atherosclerosis and arterial restenosis after angioplasty.”
“An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3-to4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones.