[Vaccine 26 (2008) 6614–6619] The needle used with the intramusc

[Vaccine 26 (2008) 6614–6619]. The needle used with the intramuscular influenza vaccine evaluated in the study was indicated incorrectly in the text as being a 23 gauge needle rather than the Selleckchem INCB024360 correct 25 gauge. In the text [Vaccine 26 (2008) 6614–6619] on p. 6615, column 2, paragraph 1, line 10 should read: “…in a prefilled 0.5 ml syringe with a 25 gauge needle and containing 15 μg of HA per strain. The authors apologize for any inconvenience. “
“Brucella abortus is a facultative

intracellular pathogen capable of infecting and causing disease in both domestic animals and humans [1]. At present, brucellosis among cattle is prevented using live attenuated vaccines from the strains B. abortus 19 or RB51. These vaccines have a high immunogenic

effectiveness, but have a number of serious disadvantages, primarily related to their ability to induce abortion in pregnant cows, secretion of the vaccine strain into the milk of vaccinated animals when they are used in adult cattle, and the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated animals and infected animals (only a concern for B. abortus 19) [2]. Furthermore, both strains are pathogenic to humans [3]. Therefore, the development PI3K inhibitor of an effective – and at the same time safe – vaccine against B. abortus is currently a problem. In an effort to create an effective and safe vaccine against B. abortus, several research groups have developed subunit (recombinant proteins) [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12], a DNA [13], [14], [15], [16], [17] and [18], or live vector vaccines (based on bacteria and viruses) [19], [20], [21] and [22]. With regard to the formation of a cellular immune response, which plays a crucial role in anti-Brucella immunity, each of these vaccines types has demonstrated positive results. all However,

these vaccines remain inferior to commercial live attenuated vaccines in terms of protectiveness; however, more promising results were obtained with the vector Semliki Forest virus expressing B. abortus translation initiation factor 3. Use of this viral vector provided significant protection in mice against virulent B. abortus S2308, which was comparable to that provided by the live vaccine strain RB51 [22]. In view of the positive results obtained using live viral vectors and the practical advantages of the reverse genetics method, which enables genetic manipulation of RNA-containing viruses [23] and [24], we propose that recombinant influenza A viruses expressing the Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins may potentially represent a novel candidate vector vaccine against brucellosis. The influenza A virus contains a segmented genome consisting of eight negative-strand RNA fragments.

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