Fear can influence decision-making by engulfing either an indivi

Fear can influence decision-making by engulfing either an individual’s sense of agency or sense of identity, or both. The former can affect competence, while the latter can cause self-confusion and uncertainty about who one really is. Although not currently acknowledged as a diagnostic or clinical indicator of NPD, Selumetinib molecular weight nevertheless, remarkable lapses in some narcissistic individuals’ decisions can force them into unbearable situations and life crises that call for urgent need of intensive

treatment. Sometimes such lapses can have devastating consequences, including Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suicide.78 In clinical settings, therapists can face a paradoxical discrepancy between such patients’ consistent self-control and proactive competence, and their sudden disparate decision strategies that seem ruled by immediate short-term gain and misjudgment, or by ignorance of salient negative or even destructive consequences, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical especially in interpersonal or professional/financial areas. Usually referred to either as narcissistic crises or trauma motivated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by urgent, defensive push for protection and enhancement of self-esteem, or by avoidance of perceived inevitable

ultimatums, many of the roots and underpinnings for such decision-making are still relatively unknown. As with fear, there is an important normal aspect of decision-making, especially its role in self-esteem regulation and sense of control, that contributes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to an organizing perception of being in charge of cause-effect, input-outcome, and action-result. In particular, efforts to optimize reward, self-enhancement, and self-promotion have proved important. Decision-making as part of an agency model for narcissistic personality functioning has been studied in social psychology in the context Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of approach—avoidance motivation, specifically in relationships and in financial and business decisions.24,79-81 Narcissistic

factors accompanying and guiding decision-making can include arrogance, overconfidence and overestimation, visibility, or impulsivity and risk taking. Contrary to lapses in decision making, some people Dichloromethane dehalogenase with pathological narcissism or NPD can present with more consistent patterns of selfpromoting decision making, involving risk-taking, and disregard or ignorance of both their own and others’ feelings and wellbeing. On the other hand, it is also possible that dysregulated feelings of fear can impact the decisionmaking patterns of these individuals. Decision-making, narcissism, and neuroscience In recent years, there has been a surge of research on decision making from a neuroscience perspective. Though there are a number of decision-making models, in this review we focus on a particular neurobiological theory of decision making that highlights the interaction between experience and emotion: the somatic marker hypothesis.

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