could not be observed for these systems, and partially light brightening of the tissue was observed. Advantageous colors were suggested to be pink and yellow.”
“Introduction: Extracellular matrix changes occur in many heart valve pathologies. For example, Selleckchem CDK inhibitor myxomatous mitral valves are reported to contain excess proteoglycans and hyaluronan. However, it is unknown which specific proteoglycans are altered in myxomatous valves. Because proteoglycans perform varied functions in connective tissues, this study was designed to identify and localize three matrix-associated proteoglycans, as well as hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis, within myxomatous and normal mitral valves. Methods: Human mitral posterior leaflets PR-171 clinical trial (control, n=6-9;
myxomatous, n=14-21; mean age, 61 years for all groups) were histochemically stained for proteoglycan core proteins, hyaluronan, and the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis. Stain intensity was semiquantitatively graded to determine differences in marker abundance between normal and myxomatous valves. The proteoglycans were localized to different regions of the leaflet by correspondence to parallel Movat-stained sections. Results: The proteoglycans decorin, biglycan, and versican were more abundant in myxomatous valves than in normal controls (P<.03). There was a gender effect on proteoglycan presence, but no age-related trends were observed. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan GSK126 molecular weight receptor for endocytosis were distributed throughout all valves. There was no significant difference in hyaluronan between groups, but expression of the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis was reduced in myxomatous valves compared to normal controls (P<.002). Conclusion:
Excess decorin, biglycan, and versican may be associated with the remodeling of other matrix components in myxomatous mitral valves. Decreased expression of the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis in myxomatous valves suggests that hyaluronan metabolism could be altered in myxomatous mitral valve disease. These findings contribute towards elucidating the pathogenesis of myxomatous mural valve disease and developing potential new therapies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Comprehensive management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires regular monitoring of disease activity, functional status, and structural damage to facilitate optimal patient outcomes. Tight control strategies have been successfully used in other diseases including diabetes and hypertension. Tight control requires frequent disease activity measurements in order to tailor treatment for individual patients, resulting in improved patient outcomes. Current monitoring measures used in clinical practice are largely driven by subjective evaluation of signs and symptoms, which are critical but limited by assessor variability and may not reflect true biological change in a timely manner.