A class II biological safety cabinet was used During the work,

A class II biological safety cabinet was used. During the work, the laboratory workers were wearing impermeable

protective clothes, gloves, and a face mask. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Determination at Different pH Values In order to estimate the antibiotics susceptibility, the well broth microdilution method was utilized with 96-well plates (TPP, Switzerland). The antibiotics (i.e. doxycycline [Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA], rifampicin [Sigma], tetracycline [Sigma], streptomycin [Sigma], ciprofloxacin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [Bayer, Istanbul, Turkey], and sparfloxacin [Sigma] were diluted twofold in Brucella broth® (Acumedia, Michigan, USA) and adjusted to pH 7.0 and pH 5.0. The wells were inoculated with 106 CFU of the bacteria (in a 0.2-ml final volume). The incubation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical period was

48 h at 37°C. The lowest concentration that completely inhibited visual growth was recorded and interpreted as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MIC testing was performed according to the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI).18 The range of the concentrations assayed for each antibiotic was 0.125 to 128 μg/ml. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 served as controls. Antibiotic Combination Studies Twenty-four of the 100 Brucella isolates (six isolates from each region) were randomly chosen to evaluate the antibiotic combination effects. Checkerboard titrations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were used at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 in the same conditions to assess the MICs and to evaluate the activities of the 9 above-mentioned antibiotic combinations. Strains showing synergy, a marked additive effect, or antagonism were retested using the broth dilution method, with each well containing the final antibiotic concentration

used in the plates. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In this checkerboard test, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (∑ FIC) was calculated as described previously.19,20 The ∑ FIC was classified as follows: synergistic≤0.75; additive from 0.75 to 1; indifferent from 1 to 2; and antagonistic≥2. Statistical Methods All the analyses were conducted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with version 4.0 of GraphPad Prism. Fisher’s exact test was used to make a comparison between the susceptible and non-susceptible isolates toward each antibiotic at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0. A P value≤0.05 was considered Histone demethylase statistically significant. Results Table 1 demonstrates that, under the conditions of our study, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin were the most effective individual antibiotics against B. melitensis from any Syrian KU-55933 region (Northern, Central, Coastal, and Southern), with the MICs ranging from 0.125 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Doxycycline and tetracycline were less effective than ciprofloxacin or sparfloxacin, with the MICs ranging from 0.5 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml for the former and from 0.25 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml for the latter; however, they were less effective against the Brucella isolates from the Coastal region.

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