The presence of hypertension, smoking and higher waist circumfere

The presence of hypertension, smoking and higher waist circumference are associated with ED in diabetic men.2

Lower testosterone positively correlates with worsening IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function) in diabetic men.2 Not all PI3K inhibitor diabetic men with ED have testosterone deficiency but evidence shows that it is present in a significant number. NICE guidelines recommendation is to ‘review the issue of erectile dysfunction annually’.3 The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on ED state that measurement of testosterone is a minimum requirement in the diagnostic evaluation.4 Penile Doppler ultrasound has shown that basal systolic velocity and dynamic peak velocity after administration of a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor are significantly

reduced in hypogonadal diabetic men when compared to eugonadal men with diabetes.5 Failure to respond to Selleckchem I-BET-762 sildenafil is associated with low testosterone in diabetes.6 Animal work has found that castration leads to reduction in vascular smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum, reduced elastic fibres and increased collagen in the tunica albuginea, fat deposition between the tunica and corpus cavernosum and reduced nerve sheath thickness in the cavernosal nerve.7 Epidemiological studies consistently report that men with type 2 diabetes have lower testosterone and higher oestradiol levels than healthy controls.8 Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels may be low or in the low normal range in some diabetic subjects. Testosterone bound to SHBG is considered to be biologically inactive. Importantly, studies have shown that the biologically active fractions of the total testosterone, i.e. measured

free and bioavailable (free + albumen bound) testosterone which are independent of SHBG, are low. Furthermore, there is a high prevalence of hypogonadism in diabetes: 17% with total testosterone below the normal range <8nmol/L with symptoms, and a further 26% with testosterone levels between 8–12nmol/L (borderline low), again with symptoms.9 Full investigation is required to determine the underlying cause for hypogonadism; classical causes of hypogonadism include Branched chain aminotransferase Klinefelter’s syndrome, haemochromatosis, pituitary tumours and other causes of hypopituitarism. Registry studies have reported that only 25% of men with Klinefelter’s are diagnosed in life and they may present with diabetes.10 In the absence of a classical aetiology then the hypogonadal state may be due to obesity, a chronic inflammatory state or aging, or a combination of these. Central fat deposits metabolise testosterone to oestradiol as well as secreting adipocytokines which inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.10 Gonadotrophin levels may be normal or low as a result of this mechanism.

coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the

coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the reason for lack of complementation of the Δpmt mutation in IB25. Even though both genes were expressed from the strong and inducible PtipA promoter, hemagglutinin-tagged PmtMtu appeared to be less abundant than hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco, when expressed in S. coelicolor under full induction selleck chemical (to ensure that this fainter band was not due to a difference in the amount of protein loaded, the membrane was stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, Fig. S3). In addition, there appeared to be limited degradation of this protein, presumably related to the fact the S. coelicolor has an abundance of extracellular proteases

(Jayapal et al., 2007). It is unlikely that this slightly lower abundance

is the reason for lack of complementation, because hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco was able to complement the Δpmt mutation for φC31 plaque formation even in the absence of inducer when expression relied on background PtipA transcription levels, revealing that even low levels of functional Pmt are sufficient for complementation (Fig. S4). The previous result prompted us to look for differences between PmtSco and PmtMtu to search for clues to the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor. Protein mannosylation by PmtMtu requires Sec translocation, and it has been proposed that physical interactions between the Sec complex and Pmt explain this requirement (VanderVen et al., 2005); therefore, Nutlin 3a the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor could result from its inability to interact with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon. Upon alignment of the Pmt protein sequences from

mycobacteria and Streptomyces species, it was clear that the main difference is the presence in the Streptomyces Pmt sequences, including that of S. coelicolor, of an N-terminal extension. According to the prediction for topology of mycobacterial Pmt, this N-terminal extension should be located on the intracellular side of the membrane (Lommel & Strahl, Aspartate 2009; Fig. S5). Because this extension could prove important for Pmt function in S. coelicolor (if, for example, it is required specifically for interaction with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon), we constructed two modified versions of the Rv1002c gene to encode chimeric Pmt proteins and cloned them in pIJ6902; in the first construct (pBL20, Table 1), 55 amino acids of PmtSco were affixed to the N-terminus of PmtMtu, giving PmtMtu + 55, whereas in the second construct (pBL21, Table 1), 178 amino acids of PmtSco, which include the first extracellular loop where acidic residues essential for activity are localized (VanderVen et al., 2005), were substituted for the equivalent N-terminal region of PmtMtu (Fig. S5). When pBL20 was introduced into the Δpmt mutant IB25, no complementation was observed, either for φC31 plaque formation (Fig. 4a, plate 5) or for Apa glycosylation (Fig. 4b and c, lane 5).

Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysed Thirty

Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Thirty seven of the forty five pharmacies who delivered PAMS returned the PCRW checklist (82% response rate) and participants from 29 pharmacies were interviewed (29 pharmacists and six additional staff). Perception of readiness for change before service delivery was remarkably high. From the interviews conducted after service delivery it was evident that systematic management of the practice change using theoretical concepts had not really been undertaken and that many challenges were faced in the implementation of practice change (PAMS). The results of the content analysis

from the interviews revealed that factors external or internal to the pharmacy or those related to the individual pharmacist could affect implementation of practice change. Change is not as straightforward see more as it may appear and is a multi-step process

over time. Pharmacists were unaware of this. A change-management framework should Selleckchem KU 57788 be applied to specific services with enough flexibility so that pharmacists can individualise them for their pharmacies. “
“Objectives  The objective of this research was to gain deeper understanding of the expectations, experiences and perceptions of Australian general medication practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists around collaboration in chronic illness (asthma) management in the primary care setting. Methods  A qualitative research methodology utilising a semi-structured interview guide, based on theory and an empirical approach, was used to fulfill the objectives of this study. Face-to-face interviews with

pharmacists (n = 18) and GPs (n = 7) were recorded, transcribed and coded for concepts and themes. Relationships between concepts and themes were examined and used to describe the nature of collaborative relationships in the primary care setting. Key findings  A relationship between GPs and pharmacists currently exists although Unoprostone there is minimal collaboration and there are several areas of practice and patient care in which the two professional groups are mismatched. At the same time, this research uncovered key aspects of the GP–pharmacist relationship, which could be used to develop more collaborative relationships in the future. The findings from this study were evaluated in light of the Collaborative Working Relationships model and published literature. Conclusions  A model for the development of GP–pharmacist relationship has been postulated which articulates the dynamic nature of professional relationship in primary care and highlights a pathway to more collaborative practice. Future research should focus on further developing this model.

, 1998) In the medium with acetate and Fe(II), however, the conc

, 1998). In the medium with acetate and Fe(II), however, the concentration did not exceed 0.15 mM because of its chemical interaction with Fe(II) (Fig. 3a). When gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O) was substituted for as an electron acceptor, growth of FOB resulted in N2 accumulation in the gas phase, while no inhibition of cell growth occurred throughout 17 days of the experiment (Fig. 3b). These results indicate the presence of the ‘disrupted’ denitrification chain in the strain Sp-1,

as was shown earlier for a new species Hoeflea siderophila (Sorokina et al., 2012): During anaerobic organotrophic growth at acetate concentration in the medium increased to 500 mg L−1, nitrite accumulation up to 6.4 mM after a short time (7 days) resulted in suppression of bacterial growth. Low nitrite reductase activity probably explains nitrate reduction only to nitrite in a large group of the known organoheterotrophic denitrifying microorganisms. Strain Sp-1 was capable of organoheterotrophic SCH772984 growth on acetate under anaerobic conditions with Ar–N2O in the gas phase; acetate consumption was as high as 7.2 mg (mg protein)−1 (Table 2). Addition of FeSO4 to the medium resulted

in a 14% increase of the cell yield accompanied by a 15% decrease of acetate consumption for protein synthesis in energetic and constructive metabolism. In acetate-free medium, while the selleck screening library growth was insignificant, with the cell yield not exceeding 5 mg protein L−1, the amount of oxidized Fe(II) (12 mg mg protein−1) was twice as high as in the case of mixotrophic growth with acetate. Weak but steady growth (3 mg protein L−1 after long-time cultivation) under anaerobic conditions was observed in mineral medium without ferrous iron and acetate. Protein was probably synthesized in the course of organoheterotrophic growth using the trace amounts of contaminating organic compounds arriving from the gas phase, as was known for other microorganisms. Thus, in the case of strict limitation of constructive metabolism by organic matter and elevated amounts

of Fe(II) oxidized per unit protein, bacterial growth was probably strictly lithoheterotrophic, with utilization of contaminating organic compounds for constructive metabolism alone, while Fe(II) was oxidized for the energy metabolism. others Molecular genetic analysis of the functional genes responsible for autotrophy in strain Sp-1 showed the absence of the genes of RuBisCO and isocitrate lyase, the key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. This result confirmed the absence of capacity for lithoautotrophic growth. Thus, strain Sp-1 is able to oxidize iron for mixotrophic and lithoheterotrophic growth; the latter should be considered as a variant of mixotrophy. According to the results of multiphase analysis, strain Sp-1 exhibited significant differences from the most closely related genera Sneathiella, Inquilinus, Oceanibaculum and Phaeospirillum of the Alphaproteobacteria.

, 1998) In the medium with acetate and Fe(II), however, the conc

, 1998). In the medium with acetate and Fe(II), however, the concentration did not exceed 0.15 mM because of its chemical interaction with Fe(II) (Fig. 3a). When gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O) was substituted for as an electron acceptor, growth of FOB resulted in N2 accumulation in the gas phase, while no inhibition of cell growth occurred throughout 17 days of the experiment (Fig. 3b). These results indicate the presence of the ‘disrupted’ denitrification chain in the strain Sp-1,

as was shown earlier for a new species Hoeflea siderophila (Sorokina et al., 2012): During anaerobic organotrophic growth at acetate concentration in the medium increased to 500 mg L−1, nitrite accumulation up to 6.4 mM after a short time (7 days) resulted in suppression of bacterial growth. Low nitrite reductase activity probably explains nitrate reduction only to nitrite in a large group of the known organoheterotrophic denitrifying microorganisms. Strain Sp-1 was capable of organoheterotrophic Rapamycin mouse growth on acetate under anaerobic conditions with Ar–N2O in the gas phase; acetate consumption was as high as 7.2 mg (mg protein)−1 (Table 2). Addition of FeSO4 to the medium resulted

in a 14% increase of the cell yield accompanied by a 15% decrease of acetate consumption for protein synthesis in energetic and constructive metabolism. In acetate-free medium, while the Nutlin-3a concentration growth was insignificant, with the cell yield not exceeding 5 mg protein L−1, the amount of oxidized Fe(II) (12 mg mg protein−1) was twice as high as in the case of mixotrophic growth with acetate. Weak but steady growth (3 mg protein L−1 after long-time cultivation) under anaerobic conditions was observed in mineral medium without ferrous iron and acetate. Protein was probably synthesized in the course of organoheterotrophic growth using the trace amounts of contaminating organic compounds arriving from the gas phase, as was known for other microorganisms. Thus, in the case of strict limitation of constructive metabolism by organic matter and elevated amounts

of Fe(II) oxidized per unit protein, bacterial growth was probably strictly lithoheterotrophic, with utilization of contaminating organic compounds for constructive metabolism alone, while Fe(II) was oxidized for the energy metabolism. Etomidate Molecular genetic analysis of the functional genes responsible for autotrophy in strain Sp-1 showed the absence of the genes of RuBisCO and isocitrate lyase, the key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. This result confirmed the absence of capacity for lithoautotrophic growth. Thus, strain Sp-1 is able to oxidize iron for mixotrophic and lithoheterotrophic growth; the latter should be considered as a variant of mixotrophy. According to the results of multiphase analysis, strain Sp-1 exhibited significant differences from the most closely related genera Sneathiella, Inquilinus, Oceanibaculum and Phaeospirillum of the Alphaproteobacteria.

We assume that this effect most probably reflects superior poster

We assume that this effect most probably reflects superior posterior cerebellar activity, which might be associated with UCS processing and preparation for action (e.g. restraining the shocked hand). There is substantial evidence for an involvement of the cerebellum, and especially superior parts of the posterior cerebellum, in affective associative learning (e.g. Timmann et al., 2008). Moreover, evidence is accumulating for cerebellar activity during emotional processing of affective stimuli per se, such as pain or affective pictures

(e.g. Moulton et al., 2011). Activations for emotional stimuli are also predominantly found at posterior parts of the cerebellum (Stoodley & Schmahmann, 2009), raising its chance for detectability with MEG. Although cerebellar activation during pain processing has already BGJ398 nmr been shown by MEG (Stancak et al., 2011), replication studies are definitely needed to support this post hoc interpretation. In line with our hypothesis, we observed hemispheric asymmetries of affect-specific amplified emotion processing. Source-space analysis revealed significantly increased neural generator activity

evoked by CS+ as compared to CS− between 100 and 150 ms after CS onset in the right prefrontal cortex, suggesting a right-hemispheric preference for aversively conditioned tones. In this website the left hemisphere, in contrast, safety-signalling unpaired CS (CS−) evoked relatively stronger source

activity within a parietotemporal neural generator cluster, indicating a role of the left hemisphere in the prioritised processing of appetitive tones. In sensor space, these findings were corroborated by the observation of significantly stronger amplitudes in response to CS− than to CS+ in a left posterior sensor cluster. A source-space analysis delivered clear indications of asymmetries in corresponding left- and right-hemispheric parietotemporal, prefrontal and (presumably) cerebellar neural generator clusters. The current finding of stronger right-lateralised processing of shock-associated tones is in line with previous aversive learning studies which have reported increased activation for both visual and auditory CS+ in the right hemisphere Alectinib supplier (e.g. Johnsen & Hugdahl, 1993; Hugdahl et al., 1995; Morris et al., 1997; Pizzagalli et al., 2003; Rehbein et al., 2011). Notably, we found preferential processing of safety-signalling unpaired CS in the left hemisphere, which is thought to mediate approach-related behaviour and to support positive affect (Davidson, 1992; Davidson & Irwin, 1999; Harmon-Jones et al., 2010). In a positron emission tomography study, Morris et al. (1998) reported a convergent effect of relatively increased left-hemispheric auditory cortex activity for safety-signalling unpaired relative to aversively conditioned CS+ tones.

None of the Tn916 insertion sites identified in this study were a

None of the Tn916 insertion sites identified in this study were adjacent to neighbouring genes with a convergent orientation, ABT-263 research buy but 23 (67%) were adjacent to neighbouring genes with a tandem orientation ( or ) and 12 (33%) to genes with a divergent () orientation (Table 1). The frequency of neighbouring gene orientation (NGO) was performed for the fully annotated core genome of B316T (Table 1) and was found to be significantly different from the NGO of the Tn916 insertion sites (χ2=94.75, df=2, P-value <0.001) (Table 2). The same analysis of the distribution of tandem, convergent

and divergent neighbouring genes within the completed B316T genome was also significantly different (χ2=13.25, df=2, P-value <0.05) when compared with the NGO of other insertion sequences, such as transposases (n=35), associated with the fully annotated core genome of B316T (Kelly et al., 2010). Similarly, the NGO were significantly different (χ2=28.22, df=2, P-value <0.001) when the Tn916 insertion

sites and insertion sequences from the B316T core genome were compared (Table 1). Transcription termination sites were identified from the annotated B316T genome, and in addition to having a high G+C percentage (Table 1), the long runs of A or T nucleotides associated with the Tn916 insertion consensus site were not apparent. These regions of higher G+C percentage may direct Belinostat mw Tn916 insertion away Edoxaban from gene termini. Additionally, selection using tetracycline may influence the maintenance of Tn916 insertion sites where the transposon would be lost in the absence of antibiotic. This study has been the first to comprehensively examine the insertion of Tn916 in a bacterial genome with multiple replicons. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate

variations in transpositional frequency in megaplasmids having specific characteristics (copy number and stability) and unexpected NGO frequencies that did not correlate with the likelihood of disruption, but appeared to correlate negatively with proximity to gene termini. These data suggest that the presence of a consensus sequence for transposon insertion is biased towards intergenic regions that constitute only 10% of the B316T genome. Although the presence of transposon insertions in intergenic regions may appear to be of limited value for assessing changes in phenotype commonly associated with insertions in ORFs, insertions between ORFs may still provide useful insights into gene function.

These data pointed to the disparate metabolic networks operative

These data pointed to the disparate metabolic networks operative in these systems and to the possible accumulation of KG and its utilization in combating oxidative stress. selleck chemicals It has been shown that KG is involved in the detoxification

of ROS with the concomitant formation of succinate. Ketoacids are known to eliminate ROS in a nonenzymatic manner (Brookes et al., 2006; Fedotcheva et al., 2006). Hence, it is not unlikely that P. fluorescens reprogrammed its metabolism in an effort to generate KG during the challenge posed by H2O2. This ketoacid has been shown to contribute to a decrease in oxidative tension (Li et al., 2009). The increased presence of succinate and KG in stressed cells would point to such a possibility. As KG was an important metabolite during oxidative stress, its utilization and production were monitored. ICDH, KGDH, and GDH are the three main participants in modulating the concentration of KG. In this study, there was a sharp increase in ICDH-NADP with a concomitant decrease in KGDH in the cells challenged by H2O2. As histidine was the only source of nitrogen and a possible precursor of KG, the presence of GDH-NAD and GDH-NADP was investigated. Although GDH-NADP was barely discernable in the control cells, there was a marked increase

in the H2O2-stressed cells. While selleck products there was a mild increase in GDH-NAD, ICDH-NAD was sharply decreased in the H2O2-challenged cells. This is not surprising as NADH, a pro-oxidant, is known to further exacerbate the oxidative burden of the cell (Finkel & Holbrook, 2000; Thomas et al., 2009). Hence, the H2O2-stressed P. fluorescens may

have downregulated its formation. However, the upregulation of the NADPH production will be beneficial as this moiety plays a pivotal role in maintaining the reductive force of the microorganism during oxidative stress. Furthermore, the enhancement of these Atezolizumab order enzymatic reactions (ICDH-NADP and GDH-NADP) will lead to the production of KG (Mailloux et al., 2009a, b). The decrease of KGDH has the net effect of increasing the pool of KG, a key contributor to the elimination of H2O2 (Brookes et al., 2006; Fedotcheva et al., 2006). Furthermore, the KGDH-mediated reaction has been shown to generate ROS (Starkov et al., 2004). To ascertain that the direct interaction between histidine and H2O2 does not lead to KG production, the growth medium with added H2O2 was monitored for 48 h without P. fluorescens. No KG was discerned (data not included). Hence, its downregulation will quell the oxidative burden of the microorganism, and limit the synthesis of NADH, a pro-oxidant. Thus, the enhanced activities of ICDH-NADP and GDH-NADP, coupled with the decreased activity of ICDH-NAD and KGDH, help generate KG and NADPH, two key ingredients necessary for survival during oxidative stress. As glutamate was an important supplier of KG, it was important to evaluate the status of other enzymes involved in the utilization or the formation of this substrate.

A study is ongoing to assess ATV/r 400/100 mg dosing with tenofov

A study is ongoing to assess ATV/r 400/100 mg dosing with tenofovir during pregnancy [37]. A limitation of this study is that the historical controls comprised both

men and women who were primarily Caucasians from the Americas and Europe, and this study included primarily women from South Pembrolizumab order Africa. However, previous studies of ATV/r 300/100 mg have showed no significant pharmacokinetic differences by gender [38] or differences in clinical outcome by race [39]. The clinical outcomes from this Phase I study suggested that treatment of pregnant mothers with ATV/r 300/100 mg qd and zidovudine/lamivudine bid was efficacious in the suppression of HIV RNA in these patients, and, together with 6 weeks of prophylaxis in the infants, it prevented mother-to-child HIV-1 infection. The pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy data obtained in this study suggest that, when ATV/r is used during pregnancy, a dose adjustment is not required for ATV. This indicates that ATV/r 300/100 mg in combination with a zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg bid backbone may be a good treatment option for HIV-infected pregnant

women. The study team would like to acknowledge the mothers and their families for their participation and commitment during the study. We thank Bristol-Myers Squibb employees Moegsina Gomez, selleck products Marina Mathew, Kristy Grimm, Awny Farajallah and Sophia Hilaly for their support and contributions to the successful completion of the study and Yonghua Wang for her help with the statistical analysis. This Bristol-Myers Squibb-supported study is also known as Study AI424182 and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326716. Professional medical writing and editorial assistance was provided by Carolyn Carroll and funded

by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Conflicts of interest: F.C. reports receiving research support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, STK38 GlaxoSmithKline, Tibotec, Schering Plough, Gilead Sciences and Abbott Laboratories; C.Z. reports receiving grant support from Tibotec, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Advent and the NIH institutes: NIAID, NCRR and NIMH. C.Z. also reports being a member of the Tibotec Presidents Council (advisory group). M.B. reports receiving research support from Pfizer, Boehringer-Ingelheim and Bristol-Myers Squibb, receiving lecture fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche and Aspen, and receiving financial support for conference attendance from Roche. O.O. reports receiving research support from Johnson & Johnson, Tibotec, Bristol-Myers Squibb, ViiV, Pfizer, Merck and Clinlogix, and consulting fees from Gilead Sciences. O.O. also reports being on the speaker bureau for Gilead Sciences and Abbott Laboratories. E.V., T.E., M.C., R.B., W.H., V.W. and D.M. report being employees and shareholders of Bristol-Myers Squibb.

Throughout the 24-h dust and leachate addition incubations, uptak

Throughout the 24-h dust and leachate addition incubations, uptake rates of 50 pM 35S-Met (1175 Ci mmol−1, Perkin Elmer, Beaconsfield, UK) by total bacterioplankton were measured

using time series (10, 20 and 30 min) incubations with 500-μL subsamples. Subsamples were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and filtered onto 0.2-μm polycarbonate membrane filters. The radioactivity retained on filters was measured using a liquid scintillation counter (Tri-Carb 3100, Perkin Elmer, UK) on board the ship and is presented in becquerels (Bq). At t=0 and 6 h, three 1.6-mL replicate seawater samples were incubated with 0.2 nM 35S-Met for 2 h to compare the bacterioplankton metabolic response to ambient dust deposition (t=0 h), and dust and leachate addition, as compared with controls, in incubation bottles (t=6 h). Samples were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and stored at −80 °C until sorted by flow cytometry to determine the group-specific 35S-Met cellular uptake. 35S-Met selleck kinase inhibitor dilution bioassays (Zubkov et al.,

2003) were performed in parallel to all experiments to estimate the ambient methionine concentration, uptake rates and turnover times. These data will be published elsewhere. Bacterioplankton samples were analysed using flow cytometry (FACSCalibur, BD Biosciences, Oxford, UK). Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria were identified and flow sorted from unstained samples using their KU57788 characteristic red autofluorescence (Olson et al., 1993). Bacterioplankton cells were stained with the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I (Marie et al., 1997), and the cells with

low nucleic acid (LNA) and high nucleic acid (HNA) content (Li et al., 1995; Gasol et al., 1999) were separated using a plot of side scatter (90° right angle light scatter) against green (FL1) fluorescence. Although the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria cannot be discriminated specifically by flow cytometry, they dominate the LNA bacterioplankton group (Mary et al., 2006; Schattenhofer, 2009), which can be sorted. The isotopically labelled LNA bacterioplankton and Prochlorococcus cells were flow sorted as described check previously (Zubkov et al., 2004; Mary et al., 2006). Radioactivity retained by known numbers of sorted cells from the two groups examined was measured using an ultra-low-level liquid scintillation counter (1220 Quantulus, Wallac, Finland) ashore and is presented as mBq per cell. In order to assess 35S-Met adsorption to dust, 5000 dust particles were sorted in parallel to microbial cells. The radioactivity of the dust particles was indistinguishable from the background measurements, indicating insignificant adsorption of 35S-Met to dust. Bacterioplankton cells in samples collected for community structure analysis were sorted into the HNA and LNA groups. Cells were collected directly onto 0.2-μm pore size polycarbonate membrane filters (Millipore, Isopore™) and analysed by FISH using the method described by Pernthaler et al. (2002), with the adaptations of Zubkov et al.